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Bering Strait

a land bridge that all humans crossed into the Americas that connected Siberia and Alaska

3 waves of migration

brought the Native Americans into the Americas: 1) Amerind wave 2) Na-Dene 3) Inuit


This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.


primarily Eastern Woodland Indians along the Mississippi River; lived in houses that looked like mounds


a large city that were once inhabited by the Mound Builders. It was filled with mounds, which were like graves Located in modern day east ST. Louis . Had huge burial mound that was 98 ft tall with a base larger than the Egyptian pyramids.

1451 Confederacy

an alliance between 4 Iroquois nations: Algonquians, Mohawks, Oneidas, Sencas. The banded together against a common enemy, the white man.

Gender Relations Amongst the Native Americans

In all Native American groups, women were in charge of the house and children, also farming. Women were head of the household which were in charge of budget and social structure. men-hunters/protectors.


based on or tracing descent through the female line


Leif Erikson's half-sister; saved her half-brother's settlement of Vinland from the Eskimos; first woman known in North American history

Hundred Years War

the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.

Black Death

the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly 1/3 people of western Europe from 1347-1351. returns about every 30 years.


from 1400's to 1600's. the physical rebirth (population gains) of classical thinking and art. Age of exploration.

Factors leading to exploration

1) Marco Polo's Travel Journals, venetian merchant that inspired Europeans to see and trade with asia
2) Experience from the crusades
3) Revival in Learning, movable type press
4) Nation Governments Stabilized
5) Desire to trade with the far east

Johannes Gutenberg

perfected the movable type press which made books cheaper and more widespread.


the first nation to explore.

Prince Henry the Navigator

in 1420, became the head of the group "Order of Christ", and exploration group which made 14 voyages along the west african coast.

Bartolomeu Dias

1487. reached the cape of good hope at the south tip of africa

Vasco de Gama

1497 sailed around the cape of good hope and eventually reached the coast of India.

Reconquista or reconquest

1469, reconquest for catholics by expelling Jews and Muslims. Completed in 1492.


the indians of the Bahamas

Columbian Exchange

the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa

Hernan Cortes

conquered the Aztec Empire in 1519

Francisco Pizarro

1532, conquered the Incan Empire in the Peruvian Mountains.

Pueblo Revolt of 1680

in 1680 there was a drought that caused a lack of food and water which weakened the spanish so the pueblo revolt and overthrow and kill monks and 400 of the spanish.

Treaty of Tordesillas

divided the new world in half between spain and portugal. (west spain) (east portugal)


1571 the reformation began attempting to reform the catholic church and challenge the churches authority. the reason they wanted reform was because they felt the catholic church was too corrupt. split europe in half between the catholics and the protestants.

Martin Luther

the number one reformer, and wrote the 95 theses in 1517. will form the lutherian church.

John Calvin

another reformer. french and more radical that believed in pre-destination and became calvanists.


determined before birth whether you were saved or damned.

Jacques Cartier

1530, he explored southern canada for the french

Samuel de Champlain

1608, established the first permanent french settlement in Quebec.

Indentured Servants

agreed to work for free for a set amount of time.


La Salle explored the mississippi river from its beginnings in canada all the way down to new orleans and he claimed the land on either side of the river for france and named it Louisiana.

Enclosure Movement

the taking of public lands and closing them off for private use. the movement led england to need more space for the growing homeless population.

Roanoke Colony

englands third attempt to colonize. Walter Raleigh establishes the Roanoke Colony but the people disappear.


England's fourth attempt to colonize and is successful. 1607, Jamestown is finally a success.

Starving Time

1609-1610 there is a starving time. Population goes from 900-60.

Headright System

In 1616 the Virginia Company introduced the headright system. "If you could pay your way to Jamestown, you got 50 acres of land for free. If family, extra 50.

House of Burgesses

The first legislative body in English America. Land owners in Virginia elected representatives who worked with the Virginia company to make laws,

Proprietary colony

the land was granted to a single owner who was the lord proprietor.

act of religious toleration

first law in America to grant freedom of worship as long as you were Christian.


group of english who wanted to separate from the church of England because they felt it was too catholic. they establish Plymouth.

Mayflower Compact

substitute or temporary charter that says people will elect a governor and all decisions will be made via town meetings. Because of the Mayflower compact the colony was based on a written contract the government rested on the consent of the governed.


Mass. Bay is founded by the Puritans which found that the church of England was too catholic and too corrupt and it needed to be purified from within. wealthiest english colonists. common belief system: God formed a special covenant with them and expected them to live according to scripture to reform the church of England and to set an example for others to follow. In return God would grant them peace and prosperity.

John Winthrop

First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

Great Migration

from 1630-1643 9000 puritans migrated to Mass. Bay

"City upon a Hill"

an example of Godly living for the rest of the world to follow.

the court of assistants

The Massachusetts government structure where church members elect a governor; then the governor appoints magistrates who served as his assistants

Roger Williams

believed: anyone still attached to the church of england was damned, the puritans needed to purchase the land from the native americans, the puritan government had no right to police the beliefs of the people. He was banished in 1636 for Heresy and established Rhode Island.

Anne Hutchison

argued that the Puritan ministers had lost sight of the true gospel. held prayer meetings in her house, and was put on trial. claimed that god had given her the ability to discern the spiritual condition of others and that she can do this without the biblical or church authority banished in 1637.

Pequot War

1637, war occurred when the puritans from Mass Bay and Conn. burned down a Pequot village. 1637 to 1675 there is a series of battles between the Pequots and New englanders.

King Philips War

last major uprising in southern N.E in 1675. They were led by metacom and attack the outer villages of Mass. Bay. Pequots lost the battle because the puritans were being aided by the Mohawks.

Duke of York

1664, english seized control of the colony from the dutch and gave it to the Duke of York which renamed it New York. James II.

English Desire for New York

Location and trade with Iroquois in New York.

Covenant chain

created to guarantee that trade is maintained between New York and the Iroquois (on the end of the English colonies)

Garden State

New Jersey is known as Garden State because of its agricultural wealth.


radical religious group from england that believed that everyone possessed an inner light and could communicate to God. Everyone had an equal position in political, social, and religious value, anti-war.

Charter of Liberties

written constitution of Pennsylvania colony by William Penn which guaranteed freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration in 1701.

Commonalities of Middle Colonies

1) ethnically diverse from the beginning.
2) had diversified economies split between trade and agrictulture
3)all proprietary colonies

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