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J1100 Test 2 Extravaganza
Terms in this set (60)
What is considered speech protected under the First Amendment?
Writing an op-ed for the local paper, speaking at a public park, and purchasing violent video games
In 2011, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that California could not ban the sale of violent video games to minors. They argued this was an example of what First Amendment violation?
Prior Restraint is a legal term for censorship, or when speech is restricted before it even happens. But who must be doing the restricting for it to be considered illegal?
A government body
The First Amendment prevents Congress from enacting laws that essentially restrict freedom of speech for its citizens. However, there have been instances in history where this has happened. Which of the following is an example of that?
The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
What does CNN White House correspondent Jim Acosta advise that journalists do in responding to accusations of "fake news"?
Continue to report the facts and tell the truth
Which of the following is NOT an exception to the First Amendment's protections?
Burning the flag
When MU basketball player Michael Porter Jr. found out there were unauthorized T-Shirts with his image on them being sold for $19.50, this illustrates what kind of First Amendment violation?
What's the legal term for when the government restricts WHAT you say, rather than where and when you say it?
Which of the following best meets the definition of sedition?
Inciting revolt against the government
The government typically won't stop you from saying or expressing anything before you do it, but they can and often will punish you for saying or expressing some things if they meet certain criteria. Which of the following is an example of that?
Child pornography, copyrighted material, and obscenity over public airwaves
True or false: According to Schiffer, there is clear evidence that there is a systematic liberal political bias in mainstream media.
The Politico article argues that paid political contributor segments are simply...
Safe and predictable idle talk
According to the Newhouse article, which of this is NOT listed as a mistake by journalists in the coverage of the 2016 presidential election?
Connection with rural and small-town America
The Guardian argues that journalists can improve their reporting with what?
Skepticism of existing data sources, Openness to new sources of information, and becoming more mobile
According to Craft and Davis, what is core value of journalism?
True or false: Independence and objectivity are the same.
Objectivity should NOT be discussed in terms of what?
The tendency for journalists to try to get "the other side" (even when the "other side" isn't fact-based or has as much weight) is an example of what form of structural bias?
The deadline-driven and 24-hour news cycle pressure is an example of what form of structural bias?
True or False: Objectivity in journalism, as conceptualized by Craft & Davis, is the ability to detach oneself and be neutral about a perspective or issue.
In The Elements of Journalism, what was the point of the author talking about how the New York Times and Washington Post published stories about the Pentagon Papers, despite facing legal troubles in court?
Jounalism's first obligation is to the truth
In another example, authors Kovach and Rosenstiel use an anecdote about reporters including cats in their stories about shipwrecks, even when there were no actual cats involved. What important distinction are they making about news?
News and truth are not the same thing
What is "journalistic truth?"
A functional truth that helps people make day-to- day choices
Kovach and Rosenstiel argue that accuracy without context can also be a distortion of the truth. What do they say are the dangers of being merely accurate without considering context?
News can reinforce false stereotypes, debates can become inflammatory rather than informative, and because people don't get the whole picture, discussions become polarized
What describes what "journalistic truth" pursues?
It seeks context over time, It focuses on making the story less false, and It gives enough information for people to make up their mind
Kovach and Rosenstiel argue that the digital age of news adds two kinds of pressures to the news-making process. What are they?
The pressures of fast news and a focus on commentary
Why do Kovach and Rosenstiel think "fairness and balance" are poor substitutes for journalistic truth?
Balance can be distorted if one side is claiming falsehoods, Fairness and balance are too abstract and are hard to test, and Fairness and balance are too subjective. Fair to whom?
If accuracy is the foundation, then journalistic truth can be seen as which of these options?
A conversation, A process over time, and A continuing journey towards understanding
According to Kovach and Rosenstiel, which of the following statements is true?
News does not equal journalism
"Journalism requires more than just the facts, but also making sense of the facts." Is this statement true or false?
Patterson's article suggests that news coverage of elections typically has what kind of bias?
True or false: According to Kovach and Rosenstiel, at the end of the 20th century, the news industry valued profitability over quality of content?
According to Kovach and Rosenstiel, journalists' primary commitment should be to whom?
In the 1980s and 1990s, what newspaper strategy began to backfire?
Targeting specific demographics
True or False: The essential product of journalism is trust - the deep sense that the content one receives is honest.
What is NOT part of the triangle of journalism's business relationship?
In 2002, which news organization established an annual audit to make clear the special nature of the relationship between a commercial news organization and the citizens?
According to Kovach and Rosenstiel, by 2013, what strategy led to the first gain in circulation revenue in a decade?
Charging for digital content
What is NOT one of the five keys to a news organization maintaining its commitment to citizens?
Hiring managers must focus on profits
The Missourian's article, "When evidence goes untested, sex offenders go undetected, advocates say," sparked a decision by the Missouri Attorney General to run an audit of untested sexual assault evidence kits. This is an example of what measurement of journalistic success?
Why does Guardian Editor Alan Rusbridger argue that it's a good thing that journalists get more connected with the perspectives of the communities on which they report?
It forms communities of interest, It encourages public participation, and It aspires to achieve and reflect diversity
When can activism become problematic for journalism, according to Kovach and Rosenstiel?
When a journalist skews or omits facts to manipulate readers to a predetermined agenda
What is the idea of Public or Civic Journalism?
Journalism that doesn't simply point out problems but also offers solutions
Kovach and Rosenstiel use stories like columnist George Will taking money from people he also wrote about as an example of the importance of transparency. Why do they think transparency is so important to journalism?
Transparency gives the audience the power to decide the worth of a journalist's work, Without it, reporters or opinion writers might pander to a certain audience for personal gain, and A lack of transparency can lead to a focus on ratings over truth
According to New York Post columnist Maggie Gallagher, an "honest journalist" can still be loyal to which of the following?
A cause, like cancer research or prison reform
What would still be considered independent journalism?
As someone who cares about environmentalism, you've read several credible scientific studies showing how humans are polluting the ocean and decide to write about it
What do Kovach and Rosenstiel mean by "independence of spirit and mind?"
Reporting that contributes to a larger truth, not an agenda, Seeing journalism as a process and set of principles, not as a job title, and Not manipulating facts to match opinion but forming opinion through facts
What is Kovach and Rosenstiel's idea of "journalistic independence?"
Holding a commitment to accuracy, verification and the public interest
What is NOT true about independent journalism?
Having a strong opinion on a subject disqualifies you from reporting on it
Which of the following is NOT true regarding what differentiates propaganda from journalism?
Propaganda comes from governments while journalism comes from trusted individuals
True or false: According to the Paradox of fragmentation, as the size of a forum grows, so do its opportunities for specialization.
True or False: According to the Paradox of fragmentation, the more time we spend in specialized forums, the more the "public common" grows.
Which word or phrase describes a common result of "Argument/Answer" journalism?
True or false: One challenge of digital public forums is the Rashomon Effect, which is the contradictory (but plausible) interpretations of the same incident by different people.
Which of the following is illustrative of a direct form of democracy?
The Athenian forum
All of the following are functions of the public criticism conception of journalism EXCEPT:
Being loyal to one's employer
Why hasn't compromise been possible or considered?
Because humans tend to present information in binary form
All of the following are examples of binary categories EXCEPT:
While "argument/answer" journalism relies on a commercial motive, public forum journalism relies on a _______ motive?
All of the following are ways that journalists can foster compromise EXCEPT:
Letters to the editor
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