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A History Western of a Western Society Chapter 25
Terms in this set (36)
Otto von Bismarck
was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused the Central Powers and Serbia's allies to declare war on each other, starting World War I.
Hussein Ibn Ali (1856-1931)
The chief magistrate of Mecca, the holiest city in the Muslim world, and ruler for the Ottoman sultan of much of the Ottoman Empire's territory along the Red Sea.
Was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat who served as the High Commissioner in Egypt from 1915 to 1917.
T. E. Lawrence
In 1917 helped lead Arab soldiers in a successful guerrilla war against the Turks on the Arabian peninsual.
General Paul von Hindenburg
Elected President of the German Reich in 1925. He played the crucial role in the Nazi "Seizure of Power" in January 1933 when, under pressure, he appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor of a "Government of National Concentration," even though the Nazis were a minority in the cabinet.
Was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg. From August 1916, his appointment as Quartermaster general made him the leader of the German war efforts during World War I.
He is best known for his opposition to World War I in the Reichstag and his role in the Spartacist uprising of 1919.
Was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War. A leader of the Radical Party, he played a central role in the politics of the French Third Republic.
Was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France and subsequently served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
Tsar Nicholas II
Was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
Was a Russian lawyer and key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.
Was a Marxist revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician. Initially supporting the Menshevik Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution, immediately becoming a leader within the Communist Party.
Was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism.
the alliance of Austria,Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
the alliance of Great Britain,France,Russia prior to and during the First World War
failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia
a war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls economic and social life in order to supply the armies at the front with supplies and weapons
a type of fighting in World War I behind rows of trenches,mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal
unplanned uprisings accompanied by violent street demonstrations begun in March 1917(old calendar February)in establishment of provisional government
a huge,fluctuating mass meeting of the two to three thousand workers,soldiers, and soicalist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905
Lenin's radical,revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxist socialism, which successfully installed a dictatorial socialist regime in Russia
Treaty if Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty signed in March 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ended Russian participation in World War I and ceded Russian territories containing a third of the Russian Empire's to the Central Powers
the application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants,introduced rationing,nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work
Treaty of Versailles
the 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers
Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination
League of Nations
a permanent international organization,established during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars
the notion that peoples should be able to choose their own national government through democratic majority-rule elections and live free from outside interference in nation-states with clearly defined borders
an article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany(with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting
the plan to allow Britain and France to administer former Ottoman territories, put into place after the end of the First World War
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine
Treaty of Versailles
Signed on June 28th 1919 in Versailles
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
signed on March 3rd 1918
World War I
lasted from July 28th 1914 to November 11th 1918
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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