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38 terms

Psych 2

hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning learning an outcome that one would have seen it (the i knew it all along phenomenon)
Amazing Randi
The magician that exemplifies skepticism. Disproves psychics.
an explanation using an integrated set of principals that organizes and predicts observations
a testable predictions, often implied by theory
Operational definitions
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
repeating the essence of the research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situations
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient
a statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggest the strength of the correlation
illusory correlations
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo
Mamie Phipps Clark
studied the effects of segregation and racism on the self-esteem of black children. Her work with her husband, Dr. Kenneth Clark, was used in testimony in the case of Brown V. The Board of Education
Kenneth B. Clark
studied segregation on children
Hawthorne Effect
phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior
Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
experimental condition (group)
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition (group)
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that my change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
confounding variable
extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable
experimental ethics
For an experiment to be ethical (for humans) it needs consent, no harm, anonymity, and a debriefing. For animals it can't be prolonged pain.
measures of central tendency
mean, median, mode
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of stores
the arithmetic average of a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
the difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the main score
z- score
distance from the mean in units of standard deviation
p- value
probability of an alignment occuring with the score in question or better. A different way of representing the significance of alignmnet; significant P scores will be close to 0.
frequency distribution
a distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable