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the tendency to believe, after learning learning an outcome that one would have seen it (the i knew it all along phenomenon)
an explanation using an integrated set of principals that organizes and predicts observations
repeating the essence of the research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situations
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggest the strength of the correlation
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo
Mamie Phipps Clark
studied the effects of segregation and racism on the self-esteem of black children. Her work with her husband, Dr. Kenneth Clark, was used in testimony in the case of Brown V. The Board of Education
phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
experimental condition (group)
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition (group)
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied
the outcome factor; the variable that my change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable
For an experiment to be ethical (for humans) it needs consent, no harm, anonymity, and a debriefing. For animals it can't be prolonged pain.
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of stores
probability of an alignment occuring with the score in question or better. A different way of representing the significance of alignmnet; significant P scores will be close to 0.
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