40 terms

Texas Gov. final exam

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redistributive policies
Policies that transfer wealth from those who have more to those who have less
sales taxes
consumption tax imposed by the government on the sale of goods and services
property taxes
Long been a source of contention in TX, especially because they are the single largest revenue generator in the state. 2015- More than $50 billion from owners of everything from to commercial real estate
Regressive tax-
a tax that exact a larger percentage of the earning of low income than of high-income individuals
progressive tax
a tax with a rate that increases as the amount is taxed rises
affirmative action
A policy that provides additional benefits or opportunities to individuals who have suffered historically from discrimination
Dillions rule
A ruling that established that state governments can place restrictions on municipalities as long as these rules do not violate the states constitution
local ordinances
Law usually found in a code of laws for a political division smaller than a state or nation, a local
government such as municipality, county, parish, prefecture
recall
a process through which voters can oust sitting members of the city government before their teams
referendum
a process through which local voters can repeal existing ordinances that a city council wont rescinds
initiative
a process where local voters can directly propose ordinances to city charters
Deferred adjudication
a defendant pleads guilty and the judge delays a final verdict until the time the defendant successfully completes the supervision
arrigment
the initial appearance of the accused in court
plea bargaining
where the defendant agrees to a lesser set of charges tan initially charged by the prosecutors
Voir Dire
jurors are questioned by attorneys and judges in court to determine if a potential juror is biased cannot deal with the issues fairly or knows a party to the case
grand jury
A legal body charged with the task of conducting official proceeding to investigate potential criminal conduct
felony
highest criminal offense under state or federal law
Crime Victims' Compensation Act
government program to reimburse victims of violent crimes- such as assault, homicide, rape, and, in some states, burglary - as well as their families for many of their out-of-pocket expenses. Every state has a crime victim compensation program.
victims right
Texas constitution guarantees several rights to crime victims and their families. Victims of crimes such as sexual assault, kidnapping, aggravated robbery or other criminal bodily harm are entitled to protection from law enforcement, the right to have the court take their safety into account on release of their attacker from correctional facility. The legislature also created the crime victims' compensation act to provide funds to victims for loss of property personal injury or death.
probable cause
the legal grounds law enforcement uses to make an arrest or conduct a search
court opinion
A statement that is prepared by a judge or court announcing the decision after a case is tried; includes a summary of the facts, a recitation of the applicable law and how it relates to the facts, the rationale supporting the decision, and a judgment; and is usually presented in writing, though occasionally an oral opinion is rendered.
appellate courts
courts that review legal issues of cases decided by lower courts
the jurisdiction of a County Court
A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.
jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace Court
Justices of the peace have jurisdiction over minor criminal matters.
jurisdiction of a municipal court
bench consists of one part-time judge and one judge pro-tempro who serves in the absence of the judge. The jurisdiction of the municipal court includes general misdemeanor criminal cases, traffic violations, and other violations of municipal ordinances.
what cases do trail courts hear
civil or criminal case that is not committed exclusively to another court
texas court system
Consists of a supreme court, which is the highest state appellate court for civil matters; a court of criminal appeals which is the highest state appellate court for criminal matters
Hierarchal- of the nature of a hierarchy; arranged in order of rank
common law
The part of English law that is derived from custom and judicial precedent rather statues. Often contrasted with statutory law.
regulations
a rule or directive made and maintained by an authority/ action or process of regulating or being regulated
licensing
The authorization process that gives a company, an individual that an organization permission to carry out a specific task
bureaucracy
A government organization that implements laws and provides services to individuals
Texas parks and wildlife department
Manages and protects wildlife and wildlife habitats and acquires areas.
public utility commission
To provide statewide regulation of the rates and services of electric and telecommunications utilities. Offers Texas assistance in resolving consumer complains about electricity rates.
state board of education
The primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."[4] The Department of Education does not establish schools or colleges
Health and Human Services Commission
is a state agency of Texas. The commission oversees several state departments that deal with health and human services, including itself and the Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services, Texas
Texas Department of Agriculture
is a state agency within the state of Texas, which is responsible for matters pertaining to agriculture, rural community affairs, and related matters.
general land office
Purses new revenue opportunities for the state. Is developing renewable offshore wind, solar, or geothermal energy on the state lands. Has two functions nominally related to land: the permanent school fund, primarily because the proceeds from the sale of state lands and revenue from resource extraction from state lands fund public schools , and veterans land board, which makes low interest loans available to veterans and oversees state veterans cemeteries and skilled-care facilities.
Texas attorney general
Duties and responsibilities. The Attorney General is charged by the state constitution to represent the state in civil litigation and approve public bond issues. ... These dutiesinclude representing the Director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice in appeals from criminal convictions in federal courts
plural executive
The diffusion of authority and power throughout several entities in the executive branch
Texas lieutant governor
President of the Texas Senate. ... By the rules of the Senate, the Lieutenant Governor establishes all special and standing committees, appoints all chairpersons and members, and assigns all Senate legislation to the committee of his choice.
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