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Cumulative Questions Chapters 1,3,4
Terms in this set (48)
1. List the 3 different fluid compartments of the body
> Extracellular Fluid
2. What is homeostasis?
Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment.
3. Name three factors that are regulated by homeostasis in the body
4. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic regulation?
intrinsic is local
extrinsic is everywhere
5. What is the difference between a feedback and feed-forward response?
Feedback is a response to change.
Feedforward is a response to an anticipation the change will occur.
6. What is the difference between a negative and a positive feedback system?
Negative Feedback: opposes an initial change by triggering a response to restore the factor to its normal state.
Positive feedback amplifies the initial change to keep a cycle going.
7. What are the 3 components to all negative feedback systems?
8. What are the 3 components to a membrane?
9. What does amphipathic mean? How is a phospholipid amphipathic?
A molecule has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements. A phospholipid has a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic tail.
10. What are 2 functions of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
11. What are 3 specialized types of cell junctions?
12. What are 3 methods of membrane transport?
13. According to Fick's Law, list 3 factors that increase diffusion rate and 2 factor that decreases diffusion rate.
>change in concentration gradient
>permeability of plasma membrane
14. If a red blood cell (300 mosm) is placed in a hypotonic solution (100 mosm), which way would water go? What would happen to the cell would it grow or shrink?
Water will go towards the higher concentration, into the cell. The cell will grow.
15. What type of molecules need to be transported by facilitated transport and why?
Molecules such as glucose because they are not lipid soluble and/or are too large but are still needed by the cell.
16. List 2 types of carrier-mediated transport.
>Primary Active transport
>Secondary active transport
17. Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Both use carriers to facilitate transport. Facilitated diffusion goes with the natural concentration gradient so it does not require energy but active does because it goes against concentration gradient.
18. List the different types of vesicular transport.
19. Describe the concentration gradient of cations in a resting cell (i.e. where is sodium and potassium?).
Sodium leaks into the cell, potassium out.
20. Which way does sodium and potassium want to go according to their concentration gradient?
Sodium wants to enter, potassium wants to leave
21. At a Vrest, which direction does sodium want to go based on its electrical potential?
Sodium out into ECF
22. If the Vm was +40 mV, which direction would sodium want to go based on its electrical potential? Potassium?
Both want to go out of the cell.
23. Describe the three different changes in Vm?
-Returns to Vrest
-More negative inside
24. If a positive ion moved from the outside of the cell to the inside of the cell at VRest, what kind of change would this make in the VM?
Depolarize and become less negative
????? idk tho?
25. If the membrane potential went from -70mV to -50mV, what kind of change has taken place?
26. If VRest becomes less negative, what would you call that kind of response?
27. What determines how big of a change a graded potential will have?
Size of the stimuli
28. How do you change the permeability of an ion to the plasma membrane?
29. Draw and label an action potential.
30 . What ion is moving across the membrane during the upshoot and which way is it moving?
Sodium is moving into the cell
31. What ion is moving across the membrane during the downshoot and which way is it moving?
Potassium is moving out
32. Draw a diagram of the voltage-gated sodium channel showing the three different shapes.
33. Draw a diagram the voltage-gated potassium channel showing the two different shapes.
34. What is the function of the refractory period?
Gives the membrane time to return to v rest before next AP
35. List the two types of refractory periods
36. What is the difference between contiguous conduction and saltatory conduction?
Saltatory is faster than contiguous conduction.
37. List all the ion channels important for an AP and synapses
Why can the axon have an action potential but a dendrite not?
Dendrites bring IN signals via graded responses.
Draw a diagram of a synapse
What is an epsp and an ipsp?
What is temporal summation?
Two action potentials in close succession with no refractory period.
What is spatial summation?
Two different action potentials occurring at the same time
Give an example using human communication how Autocrine signaling, Paracrine signaling, and Endocrine signaling each work.
Autocrine is a sticky note reminder to yourself
Paracrine is an email to a friend
IDK maze talked about this once and never wrote it down anywhere...
What is a 2nd messenger?
Intracellular molecules that cause a cellular response in the target cell.
How is G protein activated?
Binding of extracellular messenger to receptor activates a G protein.
What does adenylyl cyclase (AC) do?
Converts ATP into Cyclic AMP
What does a kinase do?
What does Phospholipase C (PLC) do?
Converts PIP2 -> DAG + IP3
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