The cell is the basic _____ of living things.
Made up mostly of phospolipids
Used during Mitosis
Packages cell products for release
Sac of digestive enzymes
Halls or tunnels throughout cyoplasm
Is there a cell wall on cells of your body?
No- cell wall are not found in animals
All cells have only one nucleus
TRUE or FALSE
False-- Heart, Liver cells and Urinary cells have more than one nucleus.
Example of Hypertonic Solution-
Concentrated Sugar solution
Example of Hypotonic Solution-
Carrier molecules are required for which type of transport across the cell membrane?
Diffusion, molecules always move from areas of _______ concentration to area of _______ concentration.
High to Low
Osmosis means the movement of _________ from _________ to ____________.
water from high concentrated of water to a low concentrated of water.
If a virus were to enter a cell and destroy its centrosomes, how would the cell be affected?
It would be unable to undergo mitosis.
What are the two major types of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
Where is DNA found?
Mostly in the Nucleus, some in the Mitochondria
What does DNA stand for?
DNA structure if a __________ ________.
Bonding between bases in DNA is always Cytosine with ___________ and thymine with ____________.
Invoves movement of water only.
A simple scattering or spreading.
Movement of solvent and/ or particles
Involves the use of a carrier molecule but no energy.
Moves substance against the concentration gradient. Is physiological- requires life.
Movement because of hydrostatic pressure difference.
Gravity can cause this.
Sorting by size through pores.
"TRUE nucleus" membrane bound
NO membrane bound
Three basic Structures of the Cell
Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus
boundary of the cell
contains all the organelles
contains genetic material
Phosphlipid bilayer, Semipermeable, and fluid- mosaic model
Made in nucleolus
Made of RNA
Network in the cytoplasm
Storage& Packaging of cell products
Cristae- where ATP (energy) is made
have own DNA & RNA
makes their own enzyemes
Transport and movement
Microfilament, Intermediate Filament, and Microtubule
Tubular extensions of the plasma membrane; contains a bunble of actin filaments- increase surface area for absorptions.
Moves substance across the cell surface
only in humans in the sprem tall propel the cell
like your skeleton- supports the cell- gives the cell its shape
Double membrane with folds
sacs filled with cell product that move them out of the cell.
detoxification of the cell
Moving from HIGH to LOW- down the gradient
NO ATP required
Moving from LOW to HIGH- up of against the gradient
ATP is required
Moving solutes across membrane using membrane proteins
3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in
Moving substances across the membrane using vesicles
Moving substance out of the cell
Moving substance into the cell
Four nitrogenous bases for DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
Purine for DNA
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines for DNA
Cytosine and Thymine
A human somatic cell contains genetic information
half from each parent
Human sex cells contain a total of ______ chromosomes
Once fertilized, the zygote, a single cell begins to multiply. The complete set of genetic information ____ must be replicated and passed on to all future cells
Breaks apart the two strands- replication fork
Bind complementary DNA nucleotides to two strands
Double strands are formed
1/2 new and 1/2 old
Double helix wraps around 8 proteins called _______ to make nucleosome.
forms a supercoil.
The supercoil then arranges into the X-Shaped _____________ just before cell division.
DNA codes for everything made by the cell and is housed in the _____________.
Proteins are made of
Form between amino acids
Ribosomes are found on
Nuclear envelope, on the Rough ER, and free in the Cytoplasm
copying the gene from DNA by making complementary messenger RNA.
ribosomal RNA subunits come together aound mRNA to "read" the code and determine what amino acids are needed.
carries amino acids to rRNA/mRNA. The tRNA anticodon binds to the mRNA codon to "deliver"correct amino acids. The process continues until all amino acids are delivered and final STOP codon is read.
unzips a portion of the DNA
binds complementary RNA nucleotides to DNA sense strand.
begins amino acid delivery
delivers amino acids
5' to 3'
The DNA is always read from:
The three- base sequence on a messenger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis; code for given amino acid
The three- base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA codon.
Produces two daughter (indentical)cells. GROWTH, MAINTAINCE, REPAIR- 46 chromosome
creat 4 genetic different in the body--sex cells- 23 chromosomes
4 classes of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Simple and Complex
- just a few carbon
Monosaccharides, Pentose, Hexose, Disaccharides
5C- ribose(RNA), deoxyribose(DNA)
6C- glucose, galactose, fructose
maltose, lactose, sucrose
- long chains of carbons
starch, glycogen, cellulose
plant energy storage
animal energy storage ( muscle and liver)
serve many purposes in our bodies. They protect us in the form of antibodies. They move to allow our muscles to contract. They are the gates into and out of our cells.
we must ingest 8 of proteins and we call them ____________ amino acids.
form betweenamino acids through dehydration synthesisto form polypeptide chains.
50 to 2000
Proteins are made of polypeptide chains that consist of _________ amino acids
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