How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

103 terms

Cell, Member Transport, DNA/ Protien Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
The cell is the basic _____ of living things.
UNIT
Made up mostly of phospolipids
Membrane
Used during Mitosis
Centrioles
Produces Energy
Mitochondria
Packages cell products for release
Golgi Apparatus
Sac of digestive enzymes
Lyosome
Halls or tunnels throughout cyoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Powerhouse
Mitochondria
Is there a cell wall on cells of your body?
No- cell wall are not found in animals
All cells have only one nucleus
TRUE or FALSE
False-- Heart, Liver cells and Urinary cells have more than one nucleus.
Example of Hypertonic Solution-
Concentrated Sugar solution
Example of Hypotonic Solution-
Distilled Water
Active Transport
Carrier molecules are required for which type of transport across the cell membrane?
Diffusion, molecules always move from areas of _______ concentration to area of _______ concentration.
High to Low
Osmosis means the movement of _________ from _________ to ____________.
water from high concentrated of water to a low concentrated of water.
If a virus were to enter a cell and destroy its centrosomes, how would the cell be affected?
It would be unable to undergo mitosis.
What are the two major types of nucleic acids
DNA and RNA
Where is DNA found?
Mostly in the Nucleus, some in the Mitochondria
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA structure if a __________ ________.
Double Helix
Bonding between bases in DNA is always Cytosine with ___________ and thymine with ____________.
Guanine, Adenine
Osmosis
Invoves movement of water only.
Diffusion
A simple scattering or spreading.
Movement of solvent and/ or particles
Facilitated Diffusion
Involves the use of a carrier molecule but no energy.
Active Transport
Moves substance against the concentration gradient. Is physiological- requires life.
Filtration
Movement because of hydrostatic pressure difference.
Gravity can cause this.
Sorting by size through pores.
Eukaryotic
"TRUE nucleus" membrane bound
Prokaryotic
NO membrane bound
Three basic Structures of the Cell
Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus
Plasma Membrane
boundary of the cell
Cytoplasm
contains all the organelles
Nucleus
contains genetic material
Plasma Membrane
Phosphlipid bilayer, Semipermeable, and fluid- mosaic model
Ribosomes
Made in nucleolus
Made of RNA
Protein Synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network in the cytoplasm
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Rough ER
protiens
Smooth ER
Lipids
Golgi
Cisternae
"Warehouse"
Storage& Packaging of cell products
Mitochondrion
"Power Plant"
Cristae- where ATP (energy) is made
have own DNA & RNA
makes their own enzyemes
Microfilaments
Muscles
Intermediate Filament
Bones
Microtubule
Transport and movement
Cell Fibers
Microfilament, Intermediate Filament, and Microtubule
Microvilli
Tubular extensions of the plasma membrane; contains a bunble of actin filaments- increase surface area for absorptions.
Cilia
Moves substance across the cell surface
Flagella
only in humans in the sprem tall propel the cell
Cytoskeleton
like your skeleton- supports the cell- gives the cell its shape
Cristae
Double membrane with folds
Secretory Vesicles
sacs filled with cell product that move them out of the cell.
Peroxisomes
detoxification of the cell
Passive Transport
Moving from HIGH to LOW- down the gradient
NO ATP required
Active Transport
Moving from LOW to HIGH- up of against the gradient
ATP is required
Solute Pumping
Moving solutes across membrane using membrane proteins
3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in
Bulk Transport
Moving substances across the membrane using vesicles
Exocytosis
Moving substance out of the cell
Endocytosis
Moving substance into the cell
Pinocytosis
Cell "drinking"
Phagocytosis
Cell "eating"
DNA
Deoxyribose
Four nitrogenous bases for DNA
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
Purine for DNA
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidines for DNA
Cytosine and Thymine
A human somatic cell contains genetic information
half from each parent
Human sex cells contain a total of ______ chromosomes
23
Once fertilized, the zygote, a single cell begins to multiply. The complete set of genetic information ____ must be replicated and passed on to all future cells
46
Breaks apart the two strands- replication fork
DNA helicase
Bind complementary DNA nucleotides to two strands
DNA polymerase
Double strands are formed
1/2 new and 1/2 old
Histone
Double helix wraps around 8 proteins called _______ to make nucleosome.
Chromatin
forms a supercoil.
Chromosome
The supercoil then arranges into the X-Shaped _____________ just before cell division.
Nucleus
DNA codes for everything made by the cell and is housed in the _____________.
Ribosomes make
Proteins
Proteins are made of
amino acids
Form between amino acids
Peptide Bonds.
Ribosomes are found on
Nuclear envelope, on the Rough ER, and free in the Cytoplasm
Transcription
copying the gene from DNA by making complementary messenger RNA.
Translation
ribosomal RNA subunits come together aound mRNA to "read" the code and determine what amino acids are needed.
Transfer RNA
carries amino acids to rRNA/mRNA. The tRNA anticodon binds to the mRNA codon to "deliver"correct amino acids. The process continues until all amino acids are delivered and final STOP codon is read.
DNA Helicase
unzips a portion of the DNA
RNA Polymerase
binds complementary RNA nucleotides to DNA sense strand.
AUG
begins amino acid delivery
tRNA
delivers amino acids
5' to 3'
The DNA is always read from:
Codon
The three- base sequence on a messenger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis; code for given amino acid
Anticodon
The three- base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA codon.
ATP
energy
Mitosis
Produces two daughter (indentical)cells. GROWTH, MAINTAINCE, REPAIR- 46 chromosome
Meiosis
creat 4 genetic different in the body--sex cells- 23 chromosomes
4 classes of Biomolecules
Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Simple and Complex
Simple Carbohydrates
- just a few carbon
Monosaccharides, Pentose, Hexose, Disaccharides
Pentose
5C- ribose(RNA), deoxyribose(DNA)
Hexose
6C- glucose, galactose, fructose
Disaccharides
maltose, lactose, sucrose
Complex Carbohydrates
- long chains of carbons
starch, glycogen, cellulose
Starch
plant energy storage
Glycogen
animal energy storage ( muscle and liver)
Cellulose
plant sturcture
Protein
serve many purposes in our bodies. They protect us in the form of antibodies. They move to allow our muscles to contract. They are the gates into and out of our cells.
Essential
we must ingest 8 of proteins and we call them ____________ amino acids.
Peptide Bonds
form betweenamino acids through dehydration synthesisto form polypeptide chains.
50 to 2000
Proteins are made of polypeptide chains that consist of _________ amino acids