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GEOL1121: Chapter 9 - Folds, Faults, and Geologic Maps

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stress
The force acting on a surface, per unit area, which may be greater in certain directions than in others.
pressure
A particular kind of stress in which the forces acting on a body are the same in all directions.
tension
A stress that acts in a direction perpendicular to and away from a surface.
compression
A stress that acts in a direction perpendicular to and toward a surface.
shear
A stress that acts in a direction parallel to a surface.
strain
A change in shape or volume of a rock in response to stress.
elastic deformation
A temporary change in shape or volume from which a material rebounds after the deforming stress is removed.
ductile deformation
A permanent but gradual change in shape or volume of a material, caused by flowing or bending.
brittle deformation
A permanent change in shape or volume, in which a material breaks or cracks.
craton
A region of continental crust that has remained tectonically stable for a very long time.
orogen
An elongated region of crust that has been deformed and metamorphosed through a continental collision.
isostasy
The flotational balance of the lithosphere on the asthenosphere.
structural geology
The study of stress and strain, the processes that cause them, and the deformation and rock structures that result from them.
strike
The compass orientation of the line of intersection between a horizontal plane and a planar feature, such as a rock layer or fault.
dip
The angle between a tilted surface and a horizontal plane.
normal fault
A fault in which the block of rock above the fault surface moves downward relative to the block below.
reverse fault
A fault in which the block on top of the fault surface moves up and over the block on the bottom.
thrust fault
A reverse fault with a shallow angel of dip.
strike-slip fault
A fault in which the direction of the movement is mostly horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault.
fold
A bend or warp in a layered rock.
anticline
A fold in the form of an arch, with the rock strata convex upward and the older rocks in the core.
syncline
A fold in the form of a trough, with the rock strata concave upward and the younger rocks in the core.
geologic map
A map that shows the locations, kinds, and the orientation s of rock units, as well as structural features suck as faults and folds.
topographic map
A map that shows the shape of the ground surface, as well as the location and elevation of surface features, usually by means of contour lines.