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Exam 4 Psych 310
Terms in this set (103)
*Communication that flows directly from one employee to her supervisor is:
*Visionary, charismatic managers are often known as _____leaders.
*_____requires that leaders reflect on their own ethics, core beliefs, and values rather than leading by copying the leadership style of others.
*What factors affect the way in which a received message is interpreted?
*Which of the following is NOT a method of to facilitate upward communication?
*___communication flows directly from a supervisor to employee.
*When one employee passes information to another, who passes the information to another, they are using what type of grapevine pattern?
*In the _____ grapevine, one employee passes information to only a few people who randomly pass the information to others, whereas in the ____ grapevine, those few people pass that information on to a few other selected employees.
*____ refers to an informal communication process in which one individual in the grapevine passes on information to a select group of people, with not everyone receiving the information.
*_____ are employees who receive less than half of the information through a grapevine, whereas _____ hear most of the grapevine information but don't pass it on.
*______ communication is the exchange of a message across a communication channel from one person to another.
*What factor, referred to as interference, affects the proper reception of a message and that is defined as actual noise, appropriateness of the channel, bias, feelings about the person communicating, mood, and perceived motives?
*Eye contact and touching are nonverbal cues known as:
*Mrs. Jones raises her voice when saying certain words. She is using _______ to communicate.
*Research by McClelland and Burnham (1976) and McClelland and Boyatzis (1982) has demonstrated that high performance managers have a "leadership motive pattern." This pattern is characterized by a high need for ____ and a low need for ______.
-power and achievement
*Nonverbal cues/communication include
-use of space
-use of time
*Regarding orientation, examples of ______ include setting goals, making decisions, and rewarding and punishing subordinates.
task-oriented/theory X leaders (use initiating structure)
*The tone, tempo, and volume in which one speaks is a nonverbal cue known as:
*Ms. Brown has all of her awards and certificates she has earned on her wall. Ms. Brown's awards and certificates, her office, what she wears, the car she drives, and the house she lives in are examples of _____ .
*______ is a conscious decision not to process certain types of information whereas ____ is an attempt to deal with every message received but processing some of incorrectly.
*Hogan (1989) has identified characteristics associated with poor leadership. What are characteristics associated with poor leadership?
*Lack of training
*Dealing with communication overload by prioritizing which information should be dealt with first; placing information into an order in which it will be handled
*An administrative assistant who screens an executive's phone calls, opens his mail, and keeps track of his appointments, exemplifies which approach to handling communication overload?
Use of a Gatekeeper
*A factor that is related to Fiedler's Contingency Model is the favorableness of a situation. According to this theory, the favorableness of a situation is determined by three variables. What are they?
- task structuredness
-leader position power
- leader-member relations
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which of the following behavioral styles works best in a situation of despair?
*An employee is beginning to miss a lot of work or leaving the organization to reduce the stress
*Based on the Path Goal theory, House (1971) believes that a leader's behavior will be accepted by subordinates only to the extent to which the behavior:
Helps subordinates achieve their goals
*Which of the four behavioral leadership styles proposed by House calls for planning, organizing, and controlling the activities of employees?
*According to Path-Goal Theory, a manager who sets challenging goals and rewards increases in performance has a(n) _____ style of leadership.
*______ Theory concentrates on the interactions between leaders and subordinates or leader-member exchanges.
*A leader with a ____ style of leadership would function best in a climate of ignorance.
*Managers whose power comes from their knowledge have ____ power whereas leaders who obtain power because of their position have ______ power.
*_____ leadership focuses on task-oriented behaviors whereas _____ leadership focuses on visionary leadership in which the leader changes the nature and goals of an organization
*According to French and Raven, power for leaders may exist when followers can identify with a leader and the leader's goals and when followers have positive feelings for the leader. Which of the following is the term used for this type of power?
*What are our tendencies when we have too much information?
level, sharpen, assimilate
*Unimportant information is removed
*Interesting and unusual information is kept
*Information is modified to fit existing beliefs and knowledge
*Involves the use of a person who screens potential communication for someone else and allows only the most important information to pass through
Use of a gatekeeper
*Involves directing some of the communication to another person
Use of multiple channels
*What are the 6 different listening styles?
*People who listen only for words that indicate pleasure
*People who listen for the main idea and meaning behind any communication
*People who listen to the way the communication is presented
*People who listen to the details during the communication
*People who pay attention to the feelings and other nonverbal cues of the speaker during the communication
*People who attend to information that is consistent with their beliefs and way of thinking
*What traits differentiate leaders from non-leaders?
2. openness to experience
5. neuroticism/ emotional stability
6. high self-monitoring
*leadership emergence seems to be stable across the life span
*Employees who both receive most of the information in a grapevine and pass it on
*What are the three grapevine categories?
*Task verus person orientation
1. task oriented leaders/theory X leaders
2. person oriented leaders/theory Y leaders
3. leaders high in both task and person orientation
*Task oriented leaders
* theory X leaders
*set goals and give orders
* believe employees are lazy and extrinsically motivated
*Person oriented leaders
*theory Y leaders
*act in a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the employees
*believe employees are intrinsically motivated
*Leaders who are high in both task and person orientations
*most effective as leaders
*will have high performance, low turnover, and low grievance rate
*the extent to which tasks have clear goals and problems can be solved; the more structured the task, the more favorable the situation
*the extent to which a leader, by the nature of his or her position, has the power to reward and punish subordinates; the greater the position or legitimate power, the more favorable the situation
leader position power
*the extent to which subordinates like a leader; The more subordinates like their leader, the more favorable the situation will be
DELETE*What are examples of task-oriented behaviors?
1. setting goals
2. monitoring performance
*Visionary, charismatic, inspirational, confident, optimistic leaders
*Challenge the status-quo and carefully analyze problems
*What criterion for being considered a group refers to a condition when something affects one member of the group it affects all members?
Corresponding effects (interdependence)
*What term refers to the extent to which group members like and trust one another?
*What are the different group roles members can assume?
1. task-oriented roles
2. social-oriented roles
3. individual role
*involve behaviors such as offering new ideas, coordinating activities, and finding new information
*involve encouraging cohesiveness and participation
*includes blocking group activities, calling attention to oneself, and avoiding group interaction; seldom result in higher group productivity
*individuals in a group often exert less individual effort than they would if they were not in a group
*considers the effect on individual performance when people work together on a task
social loafing theory
*What is a situation in which a group becomes so cohesive and like-minded that it makes poor decisions by ignoring information relevant to the decision-making process known as?
*Which source of conflict results when geographical boundaries or lines of authority are unclear?
*What is the conflict resolution strategy that involves a neutral third party who operates as facilitator and who helps both sides reach a mutually agreeable solution known as?
*What methods facilitate upward communication?
1. attitude surveys
2. focus groups
3. exit interviews
4. suggestion/complaint boxes
5. third party facilitators (liaisons, ombudsperson)
*What are the different types of grapevine patterns?
1. single-strand pattern
2. gossip pattern
3. probability pattern
4. cluster pattern
1. rate of speech
4. amount of talking
5. voice pitch
1. our office (decor, desk placement)
2. what we wear (clothing, accessories, hair styles, tattoos)
3. the car we drive
4. the house we live in
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which leadership style works best with ignorance?
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which leadership style works best with instability?
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which leadership style works best with anxiety?
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which leadership style works best with crisis?
*According to the IMPACT theory of leadership, which leadership style works best with disorganization?
*What are the four behavioral leadership styles proposed by House 's Path Goal theory?
1. instrumental style
2. supportive style
3. participative style
4. achievement-oriented style
*According to the Path-Goal Theory, this leadership style shows concern for employees
*According to the Path-Goal Theory, this leadership style shares information and lets employees participate
*According to the Path-Goal Theory, this leadership style sets challenging goals and rewards for increases in performance
*leadership power that exists to the extent that the leader has the ability and authority to provide rewards
*leadership power that comes from the leader's capacity to punish others
*What are the criteria for being a group?
1. multiple members (2 or more)
2. group rewards
3. corresponding effects (interdependence)
4. common goals
*What are the reasons why people join groups?
1. psychological needs (affiliation, identification)
2. survival needs (emotional support, assistance/help)
3. commonality (common interests/goals)
4. situational reasons (physical proximity, assignment)
*The extent to which group members are similar
*The negative effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others
*The positive effects that occur when a person performs a task in the presence of others
when one member of a group dominates the group; if the leader asserting dominance has an accurate solution to a problem, is intelligent, and conscientious, then the group will probably perform at a high level
*What type of team is also called cross-functional teams and consists of representatives from various departments (functions) within an organization?
*What are the different reactions to conflict/conflict styles?
1. avoiding style
2. accommodating style
3. forcing style
4. collaborating style
5. compromising style
*the conflict style of a person who reacts to conflict by pretending that it does not exist
*What are the two forms of avoidance?
*An approach to handling conflict in which one of the parties removes him/herself from the situation to avoid the conflict
*An employee discusses a conflict with a third-party in hopes that the third party will talk to the second party and that the conflict will be resolved without the need for the two parties to meet
*The conflict style of a person who tends to respond to conflict by giving in to the other person; also know as "Giving-In" and "Smoothing and conciliation"
*The conflict style of a person who responds to conflict by always trying to win; also known as "Winning-at-all-Cost"
*The conflict style of a person who wants a conflict resolved in such a way that both sides get what they want; also known as "win-win"
*A style of resolving conflicts in which an individual allows each side to get some of what it wants; also known as "negotiation and bargaining" and "give and take"
*What is the conflict resolution strategy in which a neutral third party who operates as a judge and who listens to all parties involved in a conflict and then makes a decision called?
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