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(T/F) Tissue grafts harvested from an unrelated person are called xenografts


Tissue grafts harvested from an unrelated person


(T/F) The final disposal of cell debris as inflammation subsides is performed by neutrophils


The central actors in the final disposal of cell debris as inflammation subsides


(T/F) Like all blood cells, lymphocytes originate from hemocytoblasts contained within bone marrow


(T/F) The daughter cells of B cells, called plasma cells, release antibodies


(T/F) Lymph fluid exits a lymph node at the indented hilus (also called hillum) via afferent lymphatic vessels


Lymph fluid exits a lymph node at the indented hilus (hilum) via which lymphatic vessels?


(T/F) Antibodies are substances capable of exciting the immune system and provoking the immune response


What substances are capable of exciting the immune system and provoking the immune response?


(T/F) Macrophages arise from monocytes formed within bone marrow


(T/F) Some pathologists consider limitation of joint movement an additional fifth cardinal sign of inflammation


(T/F) Chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign substances that can increase body temperature are called pyrogens


Chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign substances that can increase body temperature


(T/F) The nonspecific defense by which complement proteins attach to sugars or proteins on the surface of foreign cells is called complement fixation

Complement fixation

The nonspecific defense by which complement proteins attach to sugars or proteins on the surface of foreign cells


(T/F) The flaplike mini-valves of the lymphs capillaries act like one-way swinging doors that allow lymph fluid to enter the lymph capillaries but not exit


(T/F) Our immune system can be affected by severe stress


(T/F) Natural killers are unique phagocytic defense cells that can kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells well before the immune system is activated

Natural killer cells

They roam the body in blood and lymph. They are a unique group of lymphocytes that can lyse and kill cancer cells, virus-infected cells, and some other nonspecific targets well before the adaptive arm of the immune system is enlisted in the fight. Unlike the lymphocytes of the adaptive system, which can recognize and eliminate only specific virus-infected or tumor cells, natural killer cells are far less picky. They can act spontaneously against any such target by recognizing certain sugars on the "intruder's" surface as well as its lack of certain "self" cell surface molecules. NK cells are NOT phagocytic. They attack the target cell's target membrane and release a lytic chemical called perforins. Shortly thereafter, the target cell's membrane and nucleus disintegrate. NK cells also release powerful inflammatory chemicals

Natural killer cells

Which cells are a unique group of lymphocytes that can lyse and kill cancer cells, virus-infected cells, and some other nonspecific targets well before the adaptive arm of the immune system is enlisted in the fight?

Natural killer cells

Which cells can act spontaneously against any virus-infected or tumor cells by recognizing certain sugars on the "intruder's" surface as well as its lack of certain "self" cell surface molecules?

Natural killer cells

Which cells are NOT phagocytic and attack target cell's target membrane and release a lytic chemical called perforins that disintegrates the target cell's membrane and nucleus? These cells also release powerful inflammatory chemicals


(T/F) The fact that cancer-infiltrated lymph nodes are swollen and also painful helps distinguish cancerous lymph nodes from those infected by microorganisms


(T/F) Cancer-infiltrated lymph nodes are NOT painful


(T/F) Microorganism infected lymph nodes ARE painful


(T/F) IgM is the main antibody of primary and secondary responses


What is the main antibody of primary and secondary responses?

Gastric juice

Contains concentrated hydrochloric acid and protein-digested enzymes that destroy pathogens within the stomach


Propels debris-laden mucus away from the lower respiratory passages


Traps microorganisms in respiratory and digestive tracts

Nasal hairs

Filters and traps microorganisms within inhaled air


Provides resistance against acids, alkalis, and bacterial enzymes

Lacrimal secretions

Contains lysozyme

Acid mantle

Inhibits growth of bacteria and fungi in female reproductive tract


Which antibody crosses the placenta and provides passive immunity to the fetus?


Which antibody triggers the release of histamine and mediates the inflammatory and some allergic responses?


Which antibody is believed to be the cell surface receptor of an immunocompetent B cell?


Which antibody is a potent agglutinating agent?


Which antibody bathes and protects mucosal surfaces from attachment of pathogens

Peyer's patches

Which lymphoid organ is found in the small intestine?


Small masses of lymphoid tissue that ring the pharynx (the throat), where they are found in the mucosa. Their job is to trap and remove any bacteria or other foreign pathogens entering the throat. They carry out this function so efficiently that sometimes they become congested with bacteria and become red, swollen, and sore; a condition called tonsilitis


Condition where tonsils become very congested with bacteria and become red, swollen, and sore


Which lymphoid organ is located in the left side of the abdominal cavity, just beneath the diaphragm, and curls around the anterolateral aspect of the stomach?


A soft, blood-rich organ that filters and cleanses blood of bacteria, viruses, and other debris. It provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance, but its most important function is to destroy worn-out red blood cells and return some of their breakdown products to the liver.


What lymphoid mass is found low in the throat overlying the heart?


This lymphoid organ functions at peak levels only during youth. It produces hormones, thymosin and others that function in the programming of certain lymphcytes so they can carry out their protective roles in the body (The programming enables the lymphocytes to distinguish between our own cells and substances that are foreign to the body)

Active, artificially acquired immunity

Regarding acquired immunity, the introduction into a recipient of dead or attenuated pathogens, via a vaccine, is an example of which of the following?

Passive, artificially acquired immunity

Injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)

Active, naturally acquired immunity

Infection; contact with pathogen

Passive, naturally acquired immunity

Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or to infant in her milk


What type of cells are not present in a lymph node?
(a) Basophils
(b) Plasma cells
(c) Lymphocytes
(d) Macrophages
(e) B cells

lymph node

Plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and b cells are all present in which structure?


A process that occurs when antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins or viruses that can cause cell injury, thus blocking the harmful effects


Clumping of (foreign) cells, induced by cross-linking of antigen-antibody complexes. Occurs when mismatched blood is transfused and is the basis of tests used for blood typing


Formation of insoluble complexes that settle out of solution. Occurs when the cross-linking process involves soluble antigenic molecules


Nonspecific body defense designed to prevent the spread of viruses to uninfected adjacent tissues


A group of plasma proteins that normally circulate in inactive forms; when activated by complement fixation, causes lysis of foreign cells and enhances phagocytosis and inflammation


Abnormally high body temperature, a systemic response to invading microorganisms triggered by pyrogens. Causes the liver and spleen to gather up nutrients like iron and zinc that bacteria need to multiply. It increases the metabolic rate of tissue cells in general, speeding up repair processes

All of the above

Which of the following is NOT an element of nonspecific immune responses?
(A) mucous membranes
(B) fever
(C) neutrophils
(D) All of the above

IgE antibodies

Acute hypersensitivity or allergy is due to which antibodies?

Activated macrophages

Macrophages presented with antigens by dendritic cells. They are true "killers" that are insatiable phagocytes and secrete bactericidal chemicals

Memory B cells

Respond to repeated exposures to the antigen that caused their production. Daughter cell of B cells

Complement cascade

Can be triggered by
• Classical pathway: Antigen: antibody complexes
• MB-Lectin pathway: Lectin binding to pathogen surfaces
• Alternative pathway: pathogen surfaces


B cell production of antibodies is a ________ immune response


Acid barriers in stomach, inflammation, and neutrophils are part of the ___________ immune response

Natural killer cell

Type of cell that does not require specific antigen activation to become active

Cytotoxic T cells

Effector T cells responsible for attacking and lysing infected and cancerous cells

Helper T cells

Type of T cell that is specifically targeted by HIV

Suppressor T cells

Also called regulatory T cells, they release chemicals that suppress the activity of both T and B cells. They are vital for winding down and finally stopping the immune response after an antigen has been successfully inactivated or destroyed. Helps prevent uncontrolled or unnecessary immune system activity

Helper T cells

Type of T lymphocyte that orchestrates cellular immunity by direct contact with other immune cells and by releasing chemicals called cytokines; also helps to mediate the humoral response by interacting with B cells


Chemical messengers released by Helper T cells that are involved in immunity and enhance the immune and inflammatory responses. They act indirectly to rid the body of antigens by:
(1) stimulating cytotoxic T cells and B cells to grow and divide
(2) attracting other types of white blood cells
(3) enhancing the ability of macrophages to engulf and destroy microorganisms


Graft taken from a person other than an identical twin


Tissue graft harvested from a different animal species, such as transplanting a baboon heart into a human being


Tissue graft donated by a genetically identical person, the only example being an identical twin


Tissue graft transplanted from one site to another in the same person


What lymphoid organ is well developed before birth?


Also called incomplete antigens, they are small molecules that can link up with our own proteins. Chemicals that act as haptens are found in certain drugs, poison ivy, animal dander, and even in some detergents, hair dyes, cosmetics, and other commonly used household and industrial products

Plasma cells

Daughter cells of B cells that produce and release antibodies and are found in lymph nodes


Strands that extend inward from the fibrous capsule that surrounds lymph nodes that divide the lymph node into a number of compartments


Movement of a phagocytes and white blood cells in a direction corresponding to a chemical gradient of increasing or decreasing concentration of histamines and kinins


Also called antibodies or Igs, they are a specialized substance produced by the body that can provide immunity against a specific antigen. They are soluble proteins secreted by activated B cells or by their plasma-cell offspring in response to an antigen, and they are capable of binding specifically with that antigen

Anaphylactic shock

A rare body-wide, or systemic, acute allergic response that occurs when the allergen directly enters the blood and circulates rapidly through the body, as might happen with certain bee stings, spider bites, or an injection of a foreign substance (such as horse serum, penicillin, or other drugs that act as haptens) into susceptible individuals. Food allergies (peanut or wheat allergies) may also trigger anaphylaxis. Causes contraction of the smooth muscles of the lung passages and sudden vasodilation (and fluid loss), which may cause circulatory collapse and death within minutes. Epinephrine is used to reverse the histamine mediated effects


When the cell membranes of foreign cells become sticky so they are easier to phagocytize

Blood plasma

A straw colored, sticky fluid which is 90% water and contains over 100 different dissolved solutes such as nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell activity, ions and proteins


A colorless fluid derived from blood collected from tissue spaces containing white blood cells that bathes the tissues and drains through the lymphatic system towards the heart into the bloodstream.

Lymph node

Structure: Vary in shape and size, but most are kidney-shaped, less than 1 inch long and "buried" in the connective tissue that surrounds them. Each is surrounded by a fibrous capsule from which strands called trabeculae extende
Function: Remove foreign material such as bacteria and tumor cells from the lymphatic stream and produce lymphocytes that function in the immune response


A depressed area where vessels enter and leave an organ. Intended region of lymph nodes that lymph exits out of via efferent lymphatic vessels


Capability of a B cell or T cell to respond to a specific antigen by binding to it with antigen-specific receptors that appear on the lymphocyte's surface


An amber-colored, protein-rich liquid that separates out when blood coagulates. The blood serum of an animal, used esp. to provide immunity to a pathogen or toxin by inoculation or as a diagnostic agent


Liver Function Test


Creamy yellow substance formed in wound that's a mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken-down tissue cells, and living and dead pathogens

Autoimmune disease

Occurs when immune system loses its ability to distingusih friend from foe, that is to tolerate self-antigens while recognizing and attacking foreign antigens. One of several diseases, in which the body produces antibodies and sensitized T cells that attack and damage its own tissues
• Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) - joints are systematically destroyed
• Myasthenia gravis, which impairs communication between nerves and skeletal muscles
• Multiple sclerosis (MS), which destroys the white matter (myelin sheaths) of the brain and spinal cord
• Graves' disease, in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroxine
• Type 1 diabetes mellitus, which destroys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in deficient production of insulin
• Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a systemic disease that occurs mainly in young women and particularly affects the kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin
• Glomerulonephritis, a severe impairment of kidney funciton


Released from mast cell granules when allergen binds to IgE on mast cells. It causes blood vessels to dilate and become leaky, which produces edema; stimulates release of large amounts of mucus; causes smooth muscles to contract


Types of cytokines. Some stimulate T cells and B cells to proliferate; activates NK cells. Others suppress immune response

Inflammatory response

Prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues, disposes of cell debris and pathogens, and sets the stage for repair

Specific defense system

Mounts the attack against particular foreign substances. Although certain body organs (lymphoid organs and blood vessels) are intimately involved with the immune response, the immune system is a functional system rather than an organ system in anatomical sense. It's "structures" are a variety of molecules and trillions of immune cells that... Third line of defense. Consists of lymphocytes, antibodies, macrophages and other antigen-presenting cells

Nonspecific defense system

Responds immediately to protect the body from all foreign substances, whatever they are. You could say that we come fully equipped with our innate defenses, which are provided by intact skin and mucous membranes, by the inflammatory response, and by a number of proteins produced by body cells. Reduces the workload of the second protective arm, the adaptive defense system. Consists of first line of defense; skin, mucous membranes, secretions of skin and mucous membranes and Second line of defense: Phagocytic cells, Natural killer cells, Antimicrobial proteins, the inflammatory response, and fever


Body's "thermostat." Normally set at about 98.6ºF


Inflammatory chemical that (1) cause blood vessels in the involved area to dilate and capillaries to become leaky; (2) activate pain receptors, and (3) attract phagocytes and white blood cells to the area

Peyer's patches

Lymphoid follicles situated along the wall of the small intestine that trap antigens from the gastrointestinal tract and provide sites where B and T cells can interact with antigen


Signs of this are pain, swelling, redness, heat, and limitation of joint movement


Abnormal accumulation of fluid in body parts or tissues; causes swelling. Occurs when leaky fluid along with plasma fluids are not carried back to the blood


Harmful agents, Agents, especially microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi, that infect a host and cause disease


A toxicant that overactivates the immune system, causing an immune response when one is not necessary.


Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue


Clotting barrier, A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.

afferent lymphatic vessels

What brings the lymph into the lymph node?

antigen presentation

The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.

clotting cells

platelets; thrombocytes


passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue


An elevation of body temperature that accelerates tissue metabolism and the activity of defenses


3-8% of leukocytes; largest leukocyte; U- or kidney-shaped nucleus; leave circulation, enter tissue, differentiate into macrophages. 2nd WBC at site of infection; increase with chronic infections


Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.

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