a geographic area the includes cultural resources and natural resources associated with the interactions between nature and human behavior
notion that successful societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country
terms or expressions borrowed from the English language, A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.
Cold War (1945-1991)
period of time after WWII where nuclear threats and confrontation were high between the USA and USSR, rather than actual warfare
attempt by one country (usually hegemonic power) to establish settlements and to impose its economic and cultural principles in another country
process of division of a region/state into smaller regions/states that are often hostile with each other
a character that indicates the meaning of a thing without indicating the sounds to say it (e.g. - Chinese, Korean, Russian)
Muslim empire that controlled southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and most of North Africa between the 16th - 18th centuries
Cultural (Spatial) Diffusion
the spread of ideas, knowledge or innovation from its origin to other cultures and areas where they are adopted
an idea or innovation developed in a source area, remain strong there, and also spreading (a type of diffusion)
main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to or adopting what is being diffused (a type of diffusion)
an idea of innovation is not immediately adopted, yet does have an impact (a type of diffusion)
requires the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation and carry it to a new location where they disseminate it (a type of diffusion)
the idea or innovation loses its strength/population at the site of the origin (a type of diffusion)
process in which one culture substantially changes through interaction with another (one-way transfer)
the further from it's source/longer it takes, the less likely the innovation is to be adopted
process where regions in a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of a central government
people with a shared identity and culture (a nation) who possess their own territory and state government (e.g. - Aboriginal nation-state government within a country) (a type of boundary)
grouping of people who share history, culture, language or ethnic origin, often possessing/seeking its own government. (a type of boundary)
territory occupied within a nation that has the authority to make rules/govern its people (a type of boundary)
Several sources, crucibles, of cultural growth and achievement developed in Eurasia, Africa, and America.
Culture groups have varying ideas and attitudes about space, place, and territory.
This area deals with the role of culture in human understanding, use, and alteration of the environment.
And area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
Various culture complexes may have traits in common, making it possible to group them together
The time when human beings first domesticated plants, believed to have happened in the FERTILE CRESCENT, in a region close to the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.
Late Cenozoic Ice Age
The last great ice age that ended 10,000 years ago, lasting for the past 2 million years.
predecessor language of English and most of the European languages, LAAAAAAAARGEST family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
the oldest, largest, and most widely distributed superfamily spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra del Fuego
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
Family diffused in NW Canada and Alaska, second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
A made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language. (failed, pl0x. Less QQ, more piu piu)
a common language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce, "language of the land"
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.
The practice of judging another culture by its own standards (putting aside his her cultural preferences)
An ethnic religion is which people follow their shaman, a religious leader and teacher believed to connect with the supernatural
the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe