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Terms in this set (47)
A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
Outer layer of the brain, thinking, organizing, and creative center.
Connects the spinal cord to the remainder of the brain and contains many ascending and descending nerve tracts. Consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain.
Largest and longest lobe in each hemisphere. Located in the upper forward half. Association areas are involved with planning, problem-solving, personality, decision making, controlling emotions and speech production
Located in the upper back half of the brain. Receives and processes sensory information from the body and skin senses as well as other sensory areas in the brain. Association areas are invovled with spatial reasoning and sensing the position of the body in space.
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
An area at the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body
An extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration.
Control of finely coordinated movements. Coordination center, voluntary movement and balance. "Small brain."
Nerves that run up and down the length of the back and transmit most messages between the body and brain
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories
Motor cortex (frontal lobe)
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Brocas area (frontal lobe)
controls language expression-area of the frontal lobe in left hemisphere that directs muscle movements invloved in speech
Prefrontal cortex (frontal lobe)
most frontal region of the frontal lobe; involved in higher-order cognitive processes (planning, decision making, emotional control)
Somatosensory cortex (parietal lobe)
A brain area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
Visual cortex (occipital lobe)
Area of the brain responsible for the initial conscious registration of visual information; the designation of electric (nerve) impulses from the retina
Auditory complex (temporal lobe)
hearing center located in temporal lobe
Wernickes area (temporal lobe)
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
The part of the brain where information processing takes place. Divided into four lobes.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
speech production and muscle movement, temporal lobe
language comprehension, temporal lobe
consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus. The hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus make up what we call the Limbic System of your brain.
the most primitive part of the brain. It regulates all of our most vital processes with three structures: the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
short branched projections of the cell that receive
electrochemical stimulation from neurons. This electrochemical stimulation causes a change in the electrical potential across the membrane of the cell.
a long projection at the end of the cell opposite the dendrites. In some cases, the axon is insulated with myelin sheaths. These enable action potentials to travel down the axon faster because it only occurs in the spaces between the myelin sheaths rather than the whole axon.
The junction between the axon terminal and the
dendrite of the receiving cell
This neurotransmitter is typically released by motor neurons or neurons that activate muscles. It is also released inside the brain as a neuromodulator. That is a chemical that alters the way brain structures process information. It plays a significant role in arousal, attention, and motivation.
typically used by the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Its release motivates you to seek out pleasurable activity, whether it's food, sex or drugs. It is also involved in regulating movement.
functions to decrease appetite, linked to reduce aggression and mood stabilization.
Also known as gamma-Aminobutyric acid
They function by inhibiting release of GABA resulting in an increase in dopamine in the brain.
the cells that support the neurons by helping repair damage to the CNS and guide migrating neurons during brain development. They are the primary immune defense for the brain.
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