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60 terms

Test #2, ch 5,6,&7

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30 pounds
typical child at 24 months weighs...
2 years
children reach half their adult height by age
increase in fat
early weight gain is mainly
17+ hours
how many hours per day do newbords spend sleeping
cultural norms
nost likely reason that parents would choose a co-sleeping arrangement for their infant
neuron
basic nerve cell in the central nervous system
cortex
outer layer of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing
dendrites
brain weight triples in the first two years of life primarily because of this growth...
preforntal cortex
area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature
experience dependent
brain functions that rely on specific experiences to develop
self-righting
Jen had little toys to play w/ as an infant but feveloped into a curious, intelligent preschooler who concoocted toys out of whatever she could find. She is using...
sensation
eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus
cognition
thinking about what you have preceived
motor skill
learned ability to move and control some parts of the body
same motor skills in the same sequence
healthy infants develop motor skills in what type of order...
breast-fed vs. bottle-fed
breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches
wasting and malnutrition
dies which lack adequate protein
sensorimotor stage
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
birth
Piaget believes children begin to develop cognitivity at
new adaptation and anticipation
dvelops prior to new means through active experimentation
assimilation and accommodation
Piaget believes these are two elements of adaptation
second of Piaget's sesnorimotor stage
infant grabbing a bottle to suck on
interesting sights last
5 mo old Pat learned to play patty-cake when her sister claps her hands and smiles
secondary circular reaction
infant becoming responsive to toher people and to objects and touches and moving them
secondary circular reaction
9 mo old. reaches to grab something out of curiosity
prior to Piaget, most people believed children's cognitive abilities were...
children understood objects the say way adults do
Sensorimotor intelligence (final stage)
toddlers begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations
deferred imitation
10 mo old may later pick up and try to use scissors that his brother used to cut paper
habituation
becoming boared w/ an object after repeated exposure to it
affordance
the opportunity for preception and interaction that is offered by people, the environment, and objects
depth perception
infant's reaction to the visual cliff measures
infants can't remember their infancy because
language is an important tool in memory formation, and infants have not yet developed language skills
development of spoken language
reflexes, cooing, babbling, sopken words
why do English-speaking children use more nouns that verbs when they speak (compared to Chinese or Korean)
interactions between children and objects are more common in English-speaking cultures, while social interactions are more common in Asian cultures
rapid speech develops because (10 mo)
parents' talk to child frequently
language acquisition (chomsky)
children have an inborn ability to learn language
hybrid theory of language learning
idea that "multiple attentional, social and linguistics cures" contribute to early language learning
spontaneous and uncensored
emotions that develop over first 2 years
pleasure and pain
emotions that are apparent at birth
social smile
6 weeks, most recent emotional reaction
stranger wariness
infant's distress at an unfamiliar person
social awareness and reactions to stress
infants' emotional development is directly connected to brain development in these areas
mouth
according to psychoanalytic theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:
explore his or her world
after successfully resolving Erikon's first stage, a child can be expected to:
Erikson's theory believes of toddlers
they want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies
personality
molded by parents
temperament
linked to biological patters that appear in infancy
neurotic
2 year ols Ralphie is anxious and moody and his temperament is classified in the Big Five as...
self-aware
distal parents tends to produce children who are
goodness of fit
parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life
mutual interaction
a crucial aspect of synchrony
secure attachment
ex: child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver
father-infant vs mother-infant interaction
babies seem to show more excitement for their fathers
sensorimotor exploration
infant day care is of high quality if caregivers emphasis
brain maturation
influences an infant's sleep patterns
experience-dependent brain functions
depend on exposure to particular events in an individual's enmironment. One person's brain will develop differently than anothers because of their unique experiences
fine motor skills
transfering objects from one hand to another
anger
is a healthy response to his frustration
cognitive theorists
values and thoughts determine one's perspective on the world
social referencing
a girl watching her mother greet a friend, the firl then smiles because her mother is happy.