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Chapter 14: Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
Terms in this set (23)
membrane-associated enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of ATP during oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis. Found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria.
Process by which green plants incorporate carbon atoms from atmospheric carbon dioxide into sugars. The second stage of photosynthesis.
Chemiosmotic coupling Mechanism
in which a gradient of hydrogen ions (a pH gradient) across a
membrane is used to drive an energy-requiring process, such as ATP production of the transport of a molecule across a membrane.
light-absorbing pigment that plays a central part in photosynthesis.
specialized organelle in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
photosynthetic process involving photosystem 1 only, by which
chloroplasts can generate ATP without making NADPH.
colored, heme-containing protein that transfers electrons during cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
a series of membrane-embedded electron carrier molecules along which electrons move from a higher to a lower energy level, as in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
one of a family of electron transporters containing iron atoms linked to sulfur atoms and cysteine side chains; found in electron-transport chains such as those in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
the large internal compartment of the mitochondrion. The mitochondrial matrix contains a concentrated mixture of special enzymes that catalyze oxidation reactions as well as the mitochondrial genome and the proteins needed to express mitochondrial genes.
membrane-enclosed organelle, about the size of a bacterium, that carries out oxidative phosphorylation and produces most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells.
conversion of nitrogen from the atmosphere into nitrogen-containing organic molecules by soil bacteria and cyanobacteria.
process in bacteria and mitochondria in which ATP formation is driven by the transfer of electrons from food molecules to molecular oxygen. Involves the intermediate generation of a pH gradient across a membrane and chemiosmotic coupling.
the process by which plants and some bacteria use the energy of sunlight to drive the syntheses of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Large multiprotein complex containing chlorophyll that captures light energy.
small, lipid-soluble, mobile electron carrier molecule found in the respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transport chains.
in photosynthetic membranes, a protein complex that contains a specialized pair of chlorophyll molecules that performs photochemical reactions to convert the energy of photons (lights) into high-energy electrons for transport down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain.
pair of molecules in which one acts as an electron donor and one as an electron acceptor in an oxidation-reduction reaction; for example, NADH (electron donor) and NAD+ (electron acceptor).
a measure of the tendency of a given redox pair to donate electrons (act as a reducing agent) or to accept electrons (act as an oxidizing agent).
a reaction in which electrons are transferred from one chemical species to another. An oxidation-reduction reaction.
the large interior space of a chloroplast, containing enzymes that incorporate CO2 into sugars in the carbon-fixation stage of photosynthesis.
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