IB Chemistry SL
Terms in this set (285)
Atoms of different elements combine in fixed ratios to form...
Mixtures contain more than one element and/or compound that are not chemically bonded together and so retain their...
What is a homogenous mixture?
same uniform appearance and composition throughout
What is a heterogenous mixture?
consists of visibly different substances or phases
How to balance a chemical equation
Make sure equal amount of each element on each side.
Types of chemical equations
Double Displacement, Decomposition, etc.
What do you need to add on every equation you write?
What does aqueous mean?
Dissolved in water
Name the change of state from s-l
Name the change of state from l-g
Name the change of state of l-s
Name the change of state s-g
Name the change of state g-l
Name the change of state g-s
How to name ionic compounds
How to name covalent compounds
prefixes (mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, etc)
A fixed number of particles
How to find relative atomic mass
Multiply the percentages of each isotope by the isotope and then add all up
How to find molecular mass
Add up all of the atomic masses in the compound
What is Ar
Relative atomic mass
What is Mr
Relative Formula/Molecular Mass
Units of molar mass
How to find empirical formula
Simplest ratio of atoms
How to find molecular formula
Actual ratio of atoms
What are all masses of atoms compared on a scale of? (Hint: what element/isotope?)
What is Avogadro's Number (this is in the data booklet but let's not waste time looking that up)
6.02 × 10^23
Concentration (molarity) units
Ideal gas law
What is the constant R in the ideal gas law
8.314 J / mol
dm^-3 is what in our terms
What kind of brackets must you use to denote concentration?
Negatively charged electrons occupy space _______ the nucleus
What is a mass spectrometer used for?
To determine the relative atomic mass of an element from its isotopic composition
How to use nuclear symbol notation (A top z bottom X)
z= atomic number, A= mass number (so like flipped on the periodic table)
How to deduce # of protons, electrons, neutrons
protons= mass number
electrons= mass number (+/- ions)
neutrons= atomic number-mass number
Emission spectra is produced when...
photons are emitted from atoms as excited electrons return to a lower energy level
The line emission spectrum of hydrogen provides evidence for the existence of...
elections in discrete energy levels, which converge at higher energies
Maximum number of electrons
How to determine energy level (electron configuration diagram)
Draw the lines in the levels
what term should you use when talking about electron levels?
Each orbital can hold...
two electrons of opposite spin
c= speed of light
Continuous spectrum vs line spectrum
continuous shows all colors, line shows only specific wavelengths & give a specific color
Wavelength/Frequency of red and purple
Red= high wavelength, low frequency
Purple= low wavelength, high frequency
Shape of orbitals
d & f= complex geometry
electrons must fill lowest available energy level first
every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before doubly occupied
two identical particles can't be in the same place a the same time
How to write orbital diagram
arrows in each level
Electron configuration of Cr
[Ar] 3d5 4s1
Electron configuration of Cu
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
In the periodic table, vertical columns are known as....
In the periodic table, horizontal rows are known as...
The period number (n) is the....
outer energy level occupied by electrons
How to deduce electron configuration of atom based on position in periodic table
Look at the number of squares
lanthanoids (element #s, not group)
lanthanide series includes elements 58 to 7
actinoids (element #s, not group)
actinides are elements 89 to 103
atomic radius trends
decreases across period, increase down group
ionic radius trends
cations are smaller and anions are bigger cuz cations have more protons than electrons and a smaller energy level
ionization energy trends
increases across a period and decreases down a group
electron affinity trends
increase across period, decrease down group
increase across period, decrease down group
what does electronegativity mean
energy needed to attract an electron
what does ionization energy mean
energy needed to remove an electron
Oxides change from basic through amphoteric to acidic across a....
Positive ions are called
Negative ions are called
Positive ions form by ______ losing _______ _________
form by metals losing valence electrons
Negative ions form by ___-______ gaining _______
form by non-metals gaining electrons
The number of electrons lost or gained is determined by the...
The ionic bond is due to the
electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Under normal conditions, ionic compounds are usually
solids with lattice structures
Charge of NH4
Charge of OH
Charge of NO3
Charge of HCO3
Charge of CO3
Charge of SO4
Charge of PO4
A covalent bond is formed by...
electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the positively charged nuclei.
As the number of shared electrons increase, the bond length _________ and the bond strength __________
Bond polarity results form the difference in ______________________ of the bonded atoms
How to show bond polarity (there are 3 ways but u only have to do 1)
Partial charges, dipoles, or vectors
How to make a Lewis Structure
I hope u know this cuz if u don't u'll likely fail
What is the octet rule?
Atoms tend to gain a valence shell with a total of 8 electrons
What is a resonance structure?
more than one possible position for a double bond in a molecule
What is the VSEPR Theory?
molecular geometry can be predicted based on the notion that electron pairs in molecules tend to repel each other
Carbon and silicon form giant _____________/___________ ____________ ____________
covalent/ network covalent structures
What happens to electrons in crystal lattice (ionic) bonds?
metals transfer e- to nonmetals
Nonpolar covalent bonds have _______ _________ of electrons
Polar covalent bonds have ________ ___________ of electrons
Shape, angle, and polarity of a linear bond angle
straight, no unbonded e-, 180*, nonpolar
Shape, angle, and polarity of trigonal planar
triangle with no unbonded e-, 120*, nonpolar
Shape, angle, and polarity of tetrahedral
Ex CH4, 109.5*, nonpolar
Shape, angle, and polarity of trigonal pyramidal
triangle with unbonded e-, 107*, polar
Shape, angle, and polarity of Angular/Bent
Straight with two pairs of unbonded e-, 104.5*, polar
Make sure u can predict polarity due to shape
Examples of resonance structures (3)
Properties of giant covalent componds
hard, brittle, high mp/bp, nonconductive, insoluble
Properties of metallic compounds
malleable, varied mp/bp, conductive, insoluble
Properties of ionic compounds
hard, brittle, high mp/bp, nonconductive unless molten or in solution, soluble in water
Properties of molecular covalent compounds
Soft/Malleable, low mp/bp, nonconductive, soluble in non-aqueous solvents unless H-Bond to H20
Electron pairs in Lewis Structure can be shown as
dot, dash, or cross
What are some allotropes of carbon
diamond, graphite, graphene, C60, buckminsterfullerene
What is a coordinate covalent bond
one atom supplies both e- for the bond (such as: N20)
Strength of IMFs
Non polar interactions
H with O, N, F
What does "van der Waals" mean
includes dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole and London (dispersion) forces
What is a metallic bond?
electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized electrons
The strength of a metallic bond depends on the _____________ of the ions and the ___________ of the metal ion
charge of the ions and the radius of the metal ion
What do alloys contain?
more than one metal
What's the shielding effect?
Shield between nucleus and outer e- due to large radius, decreasing attraction between nucleus and electrons so they are easier to lose/gain
measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles
Heat is a form of...
What is an endothermic reaction?
Change in heat= +
Decreases in temp
What is an exothermic reaction?
Change in heat= -
Increases in temp
Enthalpy change is in what units
What is the equation for heat change?
s= specific heat
AT= change in temp
Heat of formation
Has to be at STP, IB may say Heat of Formation but then be like 300K which doesn't work
Specific heat of water
The density and specific heat capacity of aqueous solutions are ______ to those of water
In calorimetry, two limitations are heat _______ to _______________ and the ____ ___________ of the calorimeter.
Heat losses to environment and the heat capacity of the calorimeter
When reactants are converted to products, the enthalpy change is the same regardless of the # of steps in the conversion (FLIP SIGN ON REACTANTS)
Bonds forming _______ energy
Bonds breaking _________ energy
A reaction is spontaneous and will occur if change in G is <,=, or > 0?
Formula for Gibbs Free Energy
where H= change in enthalpy, G= change in free energy, T= temp, S= change in entropy
gibbs free energy changes (like if H is negative, then....)
For a reaction to occur, the activation energy must be ...
greater than or equal to the total energy of the chemical reaction
Define average bond enthalpy
energy needed to break one mol of a bond in a gaseous molecule averaged over similar compounds
Calculations with bond enthalpies may be inaccurate because
they do not take into account intermolecular forces
Define activation energy
minimum energy that colliding molecules need in order to have successful collisions leading to a reaction
A catalyst decreases the activation energy, which increases the ____ of reaction
What is the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curve?
Equilibrium is reached when
the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal
The equilibrium constant is
*the parentheses are brackets
In solubility product, a coefficient does what?
Ex, if the coefficient is 2, the variable is then (2x)^2
For the equilibrium constant, coefficient does what?
Ex, if the coefficient is 2, square the variable
The magnitude of the equilibrium is the
extent of a reaction at equilibrium and is temperature dependent
How does pressure affect equilibrium?
shifts to side with fewest gas molecules
How does volume affect equilibrium?
shifts to side with most gas molecules
How does temperature affect equilibrium? (exothermic reaction)
as temp increases, reactants increase. as temp decreases, products increase.
What does a catalyst do to equilibrium?
A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton ________
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton ___________
A pair of species differing by a single proton is called a
conjugate acid-base pair
What does amphoteric mean
Can be acid or base
What does amphiprotic mean
Can accept or donate protons
What is produced in an exothermic neutralization reaction?
Salt and water
Equation to find pH from H+
(or pOH from OH-)
pH= -log (H+)
Equation to find H+ from pH
(or OH- from pOH)
A change of one pH unit represents a ________________ change in the H+ concentration.
pH values distinguish between what three types of solutions?
acidic, neutral, and alkaline (basic)
What is the ionic product constant? (think (H+)x(OH-))
Strong and weak acids and based differ in the extent of ______________
Strong acids and based have _________ conductivities than weak acids/bases
What's the difference between a strong and weak acid?
Strong fully dissociates, weak doesn't
Rain is naturally acidic because of dissolved
pH of normal rain
pH of acid deposition (aka acid rain)
less than 5.6
Acid deposition is formed when nitrogen or sulfur oxides dissolve in water to form ... (hint: there are 4 compounds formed)
HNO3, HNO2, H2SO4, H2SO3.
in oxidation, electrons are
in reduction, electrons are
an oxidizing agent is
a reducing agent is
Do you know what an activity series is?
What is the Winkler Method used for?
measure biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), used as a measure of the degree of pollution in a water sample.
Do you know how to deduce oxidation numbers?
If not, review ur notes
What side should the +/- sign be on when talking about oxidation numbers?
on the left side (i.e. +2 not 2+)
Oxidation number of H
Oxidation number of oxygen
What do voltaic cells do?
Voltaic cells convert energy from spontaneous, exothermic chemical processes to electrical energy
Oxidation occurs at the.... (what node?)
Reduction occurs at the... (what node?)
What do electrolytic cells do?
Electrolytic cells convert electrical energy to chemical energy, by bringing about non-spontaneous processes
Do you know how to balance a redox reaction?
Remember, it's not the same as regular balancing.
Can you draw a voltaic cell?
What is homologous series?
A homologous series is a series of compounds of the same family, with the same general formula, which differ from each other by a common structural unit.
What are structural isomers?
Compounds with same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms
Functional groups are the __________ parts of molecules
Saturated compounds have only __________ bonds
Unsaturated compounds have only __________ or __________ bonds
double or triple
What does Benzene look like?
a hexagon with a circle inside
As a homologous series gains carbons, the boiling point does what? Why?
Increases cuz more bonds to break
Do you know how to find a molecular and empirical formula?
Name this molecule (in definition because it wouldn't let me attach on this part)
An alkane has
An alkene has at least one
An alkyne has at least one
An alcohol contains
An ether contains
a oxygen in the middle (a carbon chain on
An amine contains
(except secondary is -NCH and teritary has an N in the middle with three C coming off)
An amide contains
An aldehyd contains
A ketone contains
at least 3 carbons, C=O
A carboxylic acid contains
An ester contains
Combustion forms what products
CO2 and H2O
Addition reactions do what?
For example, C=C + Br2 -> ?
Br-C-C-Br (with hydrogens of course). It breaks the double bond to add the Br on
In aromatic hydrocarbons
Two alcohols form water and an ether
(NEEDS H2SO4 as a CATALYST)
carboxylic acid + alcohol -> ester and water
monomers join together to form a polymer
What is a therapeutic index?
For animals, lethal dose for 50% over effective dose for 50%. For humans, toxic/effective
What is a therapeutic window?
range of dosages between the minimum amounts of the drug that produce the desired effect and a medically unacceptable adverse effect
What are some considerations of drug administration?
Dosage, tolerance, addictions, and side effects
What is bio-availability?
fraction of the administered dosage that reaches the target part of the human body
The main steps to develop a synthetic drug are
identifying the need and structure, synthesis, yield and extraction
Drug receptor interactions are based on the
structure of the drug and the site of activity
Mild analgesics function by... (site of action)
intercepting pain at source
Aspirin is prepared from
Aspirin can prevent
reocurrence of heart attacks and strokes
Penicillin is an antibiotic produced from
The structure of penicillin includes a....
Some antibiotics work by preventing
cross linkage of the bacterial cell walls
Modifying the side chain results in penicillins that are more...
resistant to the penicillinase enzyme
Opiates are developed from... (what plant?)
What are some examples of strong analgesics?
Morphine, codeine, heroin
The ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier depends on its....
chemical structure and solubility in water and lipids
How do strong analgesics work?
by temporarily bonding to receptor sites in the brain, preventing the transmission of pain impulses without depressing the central nervous system
Medical use and addictive properties of the opiate compounds are related to the presence of...
opioid receptors in the brain
Can you compare the structures of morphine, codeine and diamorphine (heroin)?
Advantage of using morphine
effective in treating severe pain, relieve pain with no other side effects at the time
Disadvantage of using morphine
can cause constipation, respiratory depression, dependency, addiction
Why is heroin worse than morphine?
Morphine is a polar and less soluble in lipids so it is harder for it to cross the blood barrier, whereas heroin is nonpolar so very lipid soluble and can cross the blood barrier easier, making it faster acting and more dangerous
Side effects of using strong analgesics
Very addictive, may cause constipation, nausea, can cause depression or social problems
What do antacids do?
Neutralize excess stomach acid
What are active metabolites?
Active forms of antacids after processed by body
What are some uses of antacids? (like what conditions should you use them under)
Heartburn, indigestion, upset stomach
What are some examples of antacids, and what are their active ingredients?
Why shouldn't group 1 metals be in antacids?
They are too reactive and can poison body
(cuz too strong of base- fully dissociates)
What happens if you take too much antacid?
Neutralizes stomach acid too much, can damage kidneys
How is heartburn caused? How do antacids prevent it?
Gastric acid is regurgitates back into the esophagus. Most antacids contain sodium alginate which provides a protective layer which prevents the gastric juices from rising up.
What are the two types of acid blockers?
H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors
How do H2 Blockers work?
compete with histamine for H2 receptors in stomach cells, lowering HCl levels. SHORT TERM
How do proton pump inhibitors work?
inhibit the proton pumps that make acid
Examples of H2 Blockers
Examples of PPIs
Why don't antibiotics work against viruses?
Bacteria cells are prokaryotic, whereas viruses just insert their DNA into a host eukaryotic cell. Antibiotics target the cell wall or metabolic processes, and viruses don't have these.
How do antivirals work? (5)
1. Reverse transcriptase in host cell
2. Alter host's genetic material
3. Chemically block ribosomes created by virus
4. Alter virus' binding site
5. Prevent virus from entering/leaving host cell
MAIN ONE YOU NEED TO KNOW: Altering cell's genetic material so the virus cannot use it to multiply or block enzyme activity
Examples of antivirals
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and Zanamivir (Relenza)
How do Tamiflu and Relenza work?
inhibit neuraminidase which prevents the virsus from leaving the host cell so it can't replicate
What is retrovirus? What's an example?
Made of RNA instead of DNA, uses reverse transcriptase to transcribe RNA into DNA after entering cell and then integrate into chromosomal DNA
What does HIV/AIDS do to you?
inhibits white blood cells so you have no immune system
Name of antiviral that combats HIV
What are some factors that increase the risk of AIDS?
drug use (shared needles), prostitution, unprotected sex
What is high level waste?
waste that gives off large amounts of ionizing radiation for a long time
such as: radioactive liquid
What is low level waste?
waste that gives off small amounts of ionizing radiation for a short time
such as: clothes the chemo radiation doctor wore
Why is authentic antibiotic disposal important?
Otherwise, it could get in waterways which is bad because then people who drink it develop resistance to it without knowing
What are the basics of Green Chemistry processes?
- sub hazardous solvents with better environmental sale properties
- produce with renewable resources
- sub organic solvents with environmentally harmless ones
- use ionic liquids to show low pressure vapors : less emissions
How was green chemistry used to develop the precursor for Tamiflu?
Tamiflu used to be obtained from the shikimic acid found in the chinese star anise plant, which was unsustainable. Discovered that shikimic acid can be bio-engineered from fermented E. Coli, which is more effective because takes less time, less waste, and can mass produce
How did Alexander Fleming discover Penicillin?
In 1928, he came back from vacation and discovered blue mold on a petri dish and it prevented/inhibited the growth of staphylococcus bacteria
What did Florey and Chain do?
They expanded on Fleming's discovery of Penicillin by studying, purifying, concentrating, and testing it on mice (they didn't harm them tho)
What are some of the things antibiotics target to stop the bacterial infection?
target cell wall, protein synthesis, DNA replication, prevents cross linkage
How does Penicillin work?
Targets the cell wall and prevents cross linkage, so the pressure inside the cell builds up and the cell bursts
Why is the beta-lactam ring important?
Attaches to PVPs and makes them unable to function, antibacterial properties due to bond angle (90*), amide group is very reactive
Why do bacterial cells eventually become immune to antibiotics if prolonged usage?
Bacteria mutates quickly, produces penicillinase to prevent antibiotic binding
Why is it important that a person taking antibiotics uses them for the prescribed dosage (not more or less)?
Too long can lead to bacterial resistance/immunity, too short means not all of the bacteria are gone which could lead to re-occurrence or mutation
Why are alginates or dimethicone often included in antacid tablets?
Relieves bloating by allowing CO2 gas bubbles to join together and be burped out
Side effects of baking soda as an antacid
increased blood pressure from elevated NaCl (salt)
What is the range of stomach acid molarity?
0.1 - 0.01 M
Define side effect
unwanted/unexpected effect of medicine
What's the placebo effect?
effect without actual medication
How are drugs rated during a preclinical trial?
-solubility in H20 and lipids
What's a double blind experiment?
the identity of those receiving a test treatment is concealed from both administrators and subjects until after the study is completed
What does aspirin interfere with the production of?
prostaglandins , which produce an inflammatory or painful reaction
What are some advantages and disadvantages of using acetaminophen instead of aspirin?
+: doesn't irritate stomach wall
-: doesn't produce anti-inflammatory response, increases toxic side effects when taken w alcohol
Negative side effect of using aspirin
Stomach wall damage, Reyes Syndrome in babies (brain swelling), taking with alcohol is BAD because it's a blood thinner so the alcohol can have a quicker and more intense reaction
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
Combined Gas Law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Avogadro's Gas Law
V1n1 = V2n2
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT, R=0.0821 latm/molK
Standard Molar Volume
at STP, 1 mol=22.4L
What is STP?
101.3kPa, 1 atm, 760 mmHg
298K (unless for gas, then 273K)
Steps of mass spectrometer
2. Ionization (all +)
3. Acceleration (all same kinetic energy)
4. Deflection (deflected by magnetic field based on masses)
5. Detection (beams of ions detected)