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What questions should be considered before doing a research study?
Why is race being studied? On what basis will study participants be classified by race? Will there be any damage done by using racial designation?
Which statement is correct?
A. Epi studies often have indirect societal relevance.
B. Epi studies are generally funded from large corporations.
C. It is unethical to withhold clinically effective treatment.
D. Epi study participants get personal benefits from the study.
What has bioethics evolved into since it originated?
Regulating policy, research practice, cultural/societal concerns
When was the Declaration of Helsinki formed?
How many times has the Declaration of Helsinki been amended?
Is the Declaration of Helsinki legally binding or not?
Not legally binding
Who created the Declaration of Helsinki?
Communicating the results of the study to a participant is _____
An epidemiological investigator's obligation
What are the key components of informed consent?
Information, proof of consent, understanding
What does HIPAA stand for?
Health insurance portability and accountability act
Scientific misconduct is data manipulated or fabricated by ____
What are the risk factors for scientific misconduct?
Pressure to obtain research funding, external pressure to publish
What circumstances lead to epidemics?
War, migration, famine, natural disasters
What is the habitual presence of a disease within a given geographical location?
What is the most effective means of preventing infectious disease?
Communicable diseases occur because of the interaction between ___
Agent, transmission process, host, environment
What are the sources of direct transmission?
Toughing, sex, coughing, kissing
An example of a host point of entry for an infectious agent is ____
The last stage of disease outbreak investigation is _____
What are the disease outbreak steps, in order?
Verifying diagnosis, seeking control measures, informing health services/public, surveillance
An example of a variable of interest in epidemiological surveillance is ____
What are the three types of experimental designs?
RCTs, field trials, community trials
Where are field trials done?
Home, school, work
What is the focus of field trials?
Primary prevention of disease
Are the study participants in field trials patients?
What type of experiment was the Salk Vaccine Trial?
How does the average perceive health policy?
Regulations affecting the health of the population, laws, norms, practices
What statement was an outcome of the Ottowa charter for health promotion?
Individuals play a role in achieving goals of health policy
What statement was an outcome of the Bangkok charter for health promotion?
Promotion of health is central to global development agenda
What is risk management?
Development/evaluation of regulatory options is consideration of public health to take action
What is risk assessment?
Defining characteristics of potential health effects
What is risk communication?
How you give out your findings
Asking does the agent cause the adverse effect is what step in risk assessment?
What questions are associated with the benefits for early detection in screening?
What is the predictive value? Can disease be detected early? Are subjects harmed by screening?
Who developed recommendation for screenings?
American Cancer Society
Where are RCTs usually done?
What are three terms associated with scientific misconduct?
Misrepresentation, fraud, deceit
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