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Globalisation A Level
Terms in this set (91)
What is globalisation?
- Process by which different parts of the globe become interconnected by economic,social,cultural and political means
Wimbledon Tennis Balls:Transnational Product
- DUNLOP SLAZENGER
- labour in at least 10 countries
-Philippines focal point
- Rubber in core - Malaysia
- Cloth covering -UK
- packaging -Indonesia
What is time space compression?
- is the idea that the world is shrinking due to the development of transport which is continuously decreasing the time it takes to travel to different locations
What are enabling technologies?
- the technology that allows us to connect with other locations
What is structural adjustment?
- combined package of cuts in government spending, trade liberalisation and privatisation
What is trade liberalisation?
- free trade
- removing barriers such as duties or customs
What is a transnational corporation?
- company that operates in more than one country
- promote cultures
- potential investment and creation of jobs means they can have an influence
What is FDI?
Foreign Direct Investment
What is the TNC triangle?
- stages in a TNC
- 1. Production
How did new markets/trade aid globalisation?
- encourages global trade
- increased global living standard = new markets:
e.g Western Countries can sell to countries such as china who have growing population and wealth
What happens to stock exchange as globalisation occurs?
- as countries get more developed so does its stock market e.g Mumbai Stock exchange
How does improved communications aid globalisation?
- communications involves transportation of goods and flows of information
- e.g containerisation
How did containerisation aid globalisation?
- system of transporting goods in strong, steel containers
- each container can carry 25,000kg of goods
- decreased cost per unit from 30% to 1%
- increased speed
- decreased chance of theft and breakage
What is the world bank?
- offers loans for large scale projects aimed to help a country improve
- Kenya was loaned $2.2 billion to fund 23 development projects
What is the international monetary fund?
-regulates global financial system by lending money to stabilise economies so other countries more likely to trade with them
e.g Greece, 2010
What is the world trade organisation?
- regulates rules of international trade. The aim is to reduce barriers to trade such as tariffs and quotas
What is ASEAN?
- The Association of South East Asian Nations
- 10 member states : Indonesia, Malyasia,Singapore, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Vietenam, Phillipines, Brunei and Myanmor
- Population of 600 million people
What has ASEAN worked hard to achieve?
- eliminate tariffs in favour of free trade
What is the EU?
- European Union
-population 743 million
- own currency of Euros
What are trade blocs?
- voluntary international organisations that exist for trading purposes, bringing greater economic strength and security to the nations that join
What are Sovereign wealth funds?
- government owned investment funds and banks
- typically associated with China and countries that have large revenues from oil such as Qatar
CASE STUDY: Mamadou Niang
- rice farmer in Senegal
- increased cost of fertiliser and decreased amount paid for rice
- used to be given fertiliser but stopped after pressure from world bank and IMF
- made enough money for 5 months but then had to sell his goats to get by
- Senegalese government opened markets to foreign competition - rice farmers cant compete with cheaper rice from Asia and USA
What are some advanatages of trade bloc membership?
- bigger markets but no extra taxes
- national firms merge to form transnational company
- protection from foreign competitors and political stability
What are some disadvantages of trade bloc membership?
- loss of sovereignty
- compromise and concession
What is neoliberalism?
- free market liberalisation
What is privatisation?
- selling of the stuff owned by the government to private investors
What policies have governments used to encourage the growth of TNCs/FDI?
- small government/belief in market forces
What is trickle-down?
- positive impact on peripheral regions caused by creation of wealth in core regions
What is free market liberalisation?
- government intervention markets impede economic development
- associated with Thatcher and Reagan
- deregelation of London removed red tape
What is offshoring?
- TNCs move parts of their own production process to other countries to reduce labour or other costs
What is outsourcing?
- TNCS contract another company to produce the goods and services they need rather than do it themselves
What is global production network?
- A chain of connected suppliers of parts and materials that contribute to the manufacturing or assembly of the consumer goods. The network serves the needs of a TNC such as Apple or Tesco
What is glocalisation?
- changing the design of products to meet local taste or laws
What is an example of glocalisation?
- WALT DISNEY
- released Russian film, Book of Masters,based on a Russian fairy tale using local talent
- Spiderman India
What is an example of a global production network?
- MINI FACTORY IN OXFORD
- owned by BMW
- 2,500 suppliers
- some from inside, others like engine brought from a factory in Brazil part owned by BMW
- some parts may be sourced locally then assembled close to market
How is globalisation measured?
-Using the KOF and AT Kearney
What is the KOF?
- technological connectivity
- political engagement
- personal contact
What is AT Kearney?
- business activity
- cultural experience
- political engagement
What are some disadvantages of the KOF Index?
- smaller countries over represented
- trade in books and newspapers falling due to rise of e books an online news sites
- internet user cant be found accurately
- trade calculations often ignore informal - large proportion of actual trade
What are some disadvantages of A.T Kearney?
- only 64 countries included in the index
- smaller countries tend to take top place due to higher proportion of FDI
- hard to increase cultural trends
What was China's open door policy?
- allow China to embrace globalisation while remaining under one-party authoritarian rule
What happened in China after the introduction of the open door policy?
- largest migration in human history took place:
- 300 million people left rural areas
- strict registration system called hukou prevented rural area from emptying altogether
- soon 200 Chinese cities with 1 million inhabitants or more
What is atlanticist geography?
-60% of global GDP but only 18% of the worlds population
- power situated around Atlantic
What is pacific geography?
- 52% of Global GDP but 50% of worlds population
- power situated around Pacific
What is hyperglobal?
-view that global scale free trade can sometimes cure poverty
What is the global shift?
- allows massive infrastructure improvements
- South-North water organisation = pipes carrying huge amount of water
- wind energy - turbines
What are south- south links?
- China has links with Africa
- Beijing identified the African continent as an area of significant and strategic interest
- Africa provides resources to China
Why is Mumbai experiencing hyper-urbanisation?
- people trying to flee rural-poverty
- believe they can create a better life in urban areas
- rural population forced of their land
- lack of opportunities in the rural area
- more services available in the city
- drought and flooding extremely common in rural areas
- higher paid jobs available in city
- global investment goes to urban areas
- better quality of life in urban areas
- where increase in the urban population is happening so rapidly that city can not cope
what are centripetral forces?
- push and pull factors that bring into urban areas
What is mechanisation?
- the process where farms are able to buy more machinery which then means that they don't need as many manual workers
What are two types of society?
1st SOCIETY: beggars, pavement dwellers, slums, street children, rubbish pickers
2nd SOCIETY: quiet, air conditioning, middle and upper class people, modern flats/ gated homes
What is vision mumbai?
- BASED ON 6 CORE TARGETS:
- increase housing availability
- raise adequate financing and reduce administrative
- improve transport infrastructure
- make governance more efficient and responsive
- boost economic growth
- upgrade other infrastructure
What is part of vision mumbai based on?
- QUICK WINS e.g:
- promote the NGO + corporate sponsorship to clear, restore and maintain 325 open green spaces
- build an extra 300 public toilets
- widen and beautify main north-south and east- west roads
What are some properties of Mumbai?
- home to 22 million in 2015
- people flock there from impoverished rural states
- contains Dharavi a slum housing area
What are some properties of Karachi?
- 24 million people living in 2015
- centre of finance, industry and trade
- flock there from rural areas
- work in a range of industrial sector
- famous university sector
What is a brownfield site?
- abandoned or derelict urban land previously used by commercial or industrial companies
CASE STUDY: Deindustrialisation of Detroit, Michigan
- 1920s 4th largest city in USA with thriving car industry
- industrial restructuring resulting from global shift= car manufacturing move to Japan
- city lost 1/4 of popualtion
- reduction in tax revenue - city bankrupt 2013
- 2014 murder rate 45 per 100,000 highest in US
What is a global hub?
- settlement or region that has become a focal point for activities with a global influence e.g research = Cambridge
What are some properties of a global hub?
- high skilled international migration
- mass low wage migration
What does DDD stand for?
CASE STUDY: Russian oligarchs in 'Londongrad'
- 1990s soviet union dissolved - commonwealth of independent states
- process of dissolution
- businesses make owner incredibly rich due to global shift
- many brought houses in wealthiest boroughs of London
- migration allows Russian elite access to global financial investment and return uk benefits
- combined total bonds+loans 2004-13 over £250billion - UK bank charges fees up to 3% of amount borrowed
What does oligarch mean?
- used to describe those with great wealth and political power
What are some benefits to a host migration region?
- fills particular skills shortages
- willingly do labouring work that locals may be reluctant to
- working migrants spend wages on rent, benefiting the landlords
- some migrants are ambitious entrepreneurs who establish new businesses employing others
What are some costs to a host migration region?
- social tensions arise if citizens of the host country believe migration has led to a lack of jobs or affordable housing
- political parties change- address public concern
- local shortages of primary school places due to natural increase
- new markets develop for ethnic food
What are the benefits to a source migration region?
- migration remittances can contribute national earnings significantly
- less public spending on housing and health
- migrants or their children may return bringing new skills back
- some government spending costs transferred to the host region
What are some costs to a source migration region?
- economic loss of a generation of human resources
- reduced economic growth as consumption fails
- increased in proportion of aged dependents
- closure of some university courses
- closure of urban service and entertainment with a young adult market
What are cultural traits?
- culture can be broken down into individual component parts such as clothing or language
What is cultural imperialism?
- practice of promoting the culture/ language of one nation in another
What is soft power?
- global influence a country derives from its culture, its political values and its diplomacy
What is a commodification?
- giving something a cost/price
Explain how increased meat consumption in China changes landscapes across the globe
- china consumes double amount of US
- 7 pounds of grain for beef to gain a pound of meat - chicken 2 and pig 3
- china now purchases more than 60% of soybeans available for export
Who are structuralists?
- open meeting place where social movements networks, NGOs and other civil society organisations meet
Who are neo-liberal free traders?
- 2500 business leaders and head of states meet to make deals and discuss global issues
What does development mean?
- the ways in which a country seeks to progress economically and to improve the quality of life for its inhabitants
What does income per capita and GDP show?
- the mean average income of a group of people
- final value of the output of goods and services inside of nations borders
What human development indicator?
- used to show how developed a country/area is
What does environmental quality index show?
- air quality
What does the Lorenz Curve show?
- the distribution of income
- percentage of households on x axis
- percentage of income on y axis
What does the Gini Coeffecient show?
- number between 0-1 that measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of income or wealth
- 0- each member received exactly same
- 1- member got everything and the rest got nothing
How do you work out Gini coeffecient?
- A= area between line of equality and lorenz curve
-B= area under curve
What is absolute poverty?
- when a person can not afford to meet their basic human needs#
What is relative poverty?
- when you are much poorer than the people surrounding you
CASE STUDY:Fair Trade System
- seeks greater equity in international trade
- ingredients produced by small-scale farmer organisations or plantations
- minimum price and additional fairtrade premium paid to producer
- products e.g coffee, cocoa and cotton farmers encouraged to build small scale democratic organisations - stable income
- products bananas, teas, flowers certify plantations - protect workers basic rights
CASE STUDY: Transition towns
- create community gardens
- replace ornamented plants with fruit plants
- raise awareness of sustainable living and build ecological resilience
- Began in Totnes, Uk 2006 spread to more than 1000 communities
- community project to seek to build resilience in response to the issue of peak oil, climate change and economic instability by creating local values that uphold the values of a transition network
What is resource nationalism?
- describes a growing tendency for states governments to take measures ensuring that domestic industries and consumers have priority access to the national resources found within their borders
What are open borders?
- free movement of labour, goods and people without many checks
What is deregulation?
- process of reducing or removing rules governing economic activity in a country with the aim of encouraging investment
What is foreign direct investment?
- a controlling interest or investment in a business by a foreign entity.
- investment within a country originating from outside that country
What are diasporas?
- the movement of a population away from their homeland
What is cultural erosion?
- the loss or dilution of a specific culture due to cultural diffusion
- a change in ideas and traditions
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