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A level geograohy key tectonics
Terms in this set (80)
What is a natural hazard?
A natural event that poses a risk to property and human life
What groups are most vunerable to hazards?
- babies/children -poorest -diabled -elderely -ill - people close to hazard
What affects how people can cope with hazards?
- money - frequency -experience -safety measures -preparation
What are the properties of a continental plate?
-has land on it - not dense - thick (25-100km)
What are the properties of a oceanic plate?
- has ocean on it - dense - thin (5-10km) -sinks
What is subduction?
When the oceanic plate goes under the continental plate as it is more dense.
What is a constructive plate margin?
Plates moving apart which lets the matle reach the surface and construct new crust. May get earthquakes here due to the friction caused by the plates moving over the mantle. e.g pacific plate and nazca plate
What is a collison plate boundary?
Two continental plates push together because of the strong pressure caused by it, there can be strong earthquakes here. To add to that they squeeze up as they are the same density and can form fold mountains. e.g himlayas
What is a destructive plate margin?
Oceanic and continental plates towards each other and oceanic sinks under as it is more dense, friction can cause earthquskes.
Oceanic melts as goes in mantle as take sea with it which is less dense then mantle so it rises- goes up through crust and explodes at surface as volcano. Not much lava but a lot of ash steam and gas
e.g Eurasion and pacific
What is a conservative plate margin?
Plates are moving past each other friction between two plates causes earthquakes. There is no volcanoes
e.g San andreas fault - California - American and pacific plate
What is a volcano?
A volcano is formed when a hole,crack or vent in the Earth's crust allowes molten rock,solid rock, steam and other gases to escape onto earth's surface and into air
What are properties of a strato volcano?
- lava is more viscous and cool quickly, acid - slopes are steep - small area covered - cause volcanic bombs and death
e.g Mount Etna,Italy
What are the properties of a shield volcano?
- Lave less acidic, less viscous and runny
- slopes gentle
-large area covered
- less damaging then strato
e.g Mauna Lou, Hawaii
- Liquid molten rock
- where magma comes from/stored
-magma when it flows out and onto earths surface
- what lava comes through to get to to surface
- regular eruptions e.g Mount Etna
- not erupted for many years but activity can be detected e.g Mount Fiji, Japan last major eruption 1708
Will not erupt again, no activity can be detected e.g La Gamera, Canary Islands
What are some primary effects of volcanoes?
- Buildings and roads destroyed by lava
- Crops damage and water supplies contaminated by tephra (rock and ash)
-People animals and plant suffocated by volcanic gases
People and animals injured/killed by pyroclastic flows and volcanic bombs or lava
What are some secondary effects of volcanoes?
- Fires can start from lava or pyroclastic flows
- Mudflows(lahars) form when volcaninc ash mixes with water, very destructive
-Sulphur dioxide released into atmosphere causes acid rain
- Shortage of food and water
- people left homeless
-Roads block or destroyed so aid and emergency vehicles can't get through
Mount Etna Case Study: Properties of Mount Etna
- 3323m tall it is a strato volcano
- Settlements very close to it
- land to east safest as land is flatter, less lava flow and can escape easily
What are the social primary effects of Mount Etna?
Roads covered in Ash-
blocks access to areas
What are some economic primary effects of mount etna?
Roads covered in ash-
need taking away costs money also may need repairing
What is a lava tube?
A tube that lava flows through as it travels down the volcano, these are underground which is why lava can't always be seen
How do the internatonal community respond to disasters like earthquakes and volcanoes: immediate needs
-baby formula milk,
How do the internatonal community respond to disasters like earthquakes and volcanoes: problems aid agencies may experience?
- roads blocked
- cant pitch tent on rubbish or mud
- loss of life
- lack of communciation
- after shocks
How do the internatonal community respond to disasters like earthquakes and volcanoes: long term considerations?
- health care
A smaller eathquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake in same area
what the main shock if called if the aftershock is bigger than the first shock
What are the different depths?
0-70km - Shallow 70-300km - Intermediate 300-700km-deep
The bigger the depth the lower the strength of the shaking
The point on the earth's surface verticaly above focus of earthquake
thin zone of crush rock separating blocks of earth crust
Place where the earthquake orginated
Twelve point scale for expressing intensity of earhquake ranging from 1 virtually impreceptible to 11 total destruction. Measures amount of damage caused
Numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an eathquake on the bases of seismograph oscillation. Ranges between 1 and 10
An elastic wave in the earth produced by an earthquake or other means
Nepal Case Study Earthquake 2015 - Properites of location
Located in Asia on a collision plate boundary.
Not highly developed country:
Life expectancy - 68
GNI per capita US$ - 730
Adult literacy rate- 57%
HDI score and ranking - 0.540 145th
Earthquake 7.8 magnitude
What were the primary effects on Nepal Earthquake?
- many injured -22,309
- 8856 killed
-many trapped in debris
-houses destroyed - 602,257 and 185,099 damaged
-35,000 classrooms destroyed
What were the secondary effects of Nepal Earthquake?
- 1 million children left with no school
-not enought doctors to help or equipment as 956 hosiptals/clinics damged
-700,000 people put into poverty
- disease spread easily
Case study Japan 2011 :Properties
- Tohuku earthquake occured 11th march 2011
- measured 9 on richter scale
- depth 30km
- epicentre 129km from coast of Sendai
- occured along subduction zone between pacific and north american plates
What were the social primary effects of the Japan Earthquake?
15,845 killed 5,894 injured 3,375 missing
What were the economic primary effects of the Japan earthquake?
125.479 properties destroyed
3,918 roads damaged
78 bridges damaged
What were the environmental primary effects of the Japan earthquake?
Ground shaking, some parts moved 2.4m east , Ground subsidence 400km of coast sank by 0.6m
What were the economic secondary effects of the Japan Earthquake?
- Shipping disrupted commuting and travel affected agriculture destroyed, nuclear power plants damaged
What were the environmental secondary effects of the Japan Earthquake?
tsunami - 5-8m upthurst along 180km of seabed , flooding
What were the secondary effects of the Japan Earthquake?
Social: less income- jobs stopped
Economic: Shipping disrupted ,commuting and travel affected agriculture destroyed, nuclear power plants damaged
Environmental: tsunami - 5-8m upthurst along 180km of seabed , flooding
Where are wildfires commonly found?
In south America and the sub-saharan desert in Africa. Also occuring wildfires in North East Australia, Central Europe, Indonesia and North America.
What fuels can cause wildfires?
- Ground fuels e.g rooks of trees
- Surface fuels e.g twigs and leaves
- Aerial fuels e.g branches
What are some human causes of wildfires?
-broken glass, camp fires,cigarettes, BBQ, machinery, arson, electricity, railway, debris burning
What are some physical causes of wildfires?
Case Study Black Saturday,Australia Wildfire: What is it?
7th Feburary 2009 140'c
Series of bushfire ignited or burning across australian state of victoria
400 indvidual fires recorded
CASE STUDY BLACK SATURDAY? What were some causes?
- extreme heat
- little or no rain in 2 months
- high winds
- power lines fall
What were some social effects of Black Saturday?
173 people killed around 78 communites effected
What were some economic effects of black Saturday?
61 businesses ruined
total damage estimated at $5billion
What were some environmental effects of black Saturday?
430,000 hectares of land affected 70 national parks and reserves ruinted
3350 agriculture facilities damaged
How can education reudce effects of wildfires?
- people will know how to prevent one and what to do if one starts
How can air drops help fight a wild fire?
- fly over and drop water on it
- help put out quicker
How can fire lines help fight wildfires ?
- gap in vegetation or other combustible material
- all fuels removed
- Slow it down
How can back burning help fight wildfires?
- process of planning and applying fire to a determined area
- prevent build up of fuels
How do tropical storms form?
- An intense are of low pressure form over warm ocean(26-28'c) Thereis a strong upward movement of air
-As air rises it cools quickly=condensation which creates towering thunder storm clouds
- as condensation hapeens energy is released increasing strength of storm
-several thunderstorm join together.The conolis effect(result of earth's rotation) makes giant storm system spin
- storm continues to gain strength and wind speeds increases- when wind speeds reach 740mph/120kph officially tropical storm
What is the eye of a tropical storm?
- At centre of storm
- air descends rapidly and as it is sinking there is no clouds here
-it is calm
Case Study Typhoon Haiyan 2013 : properties
- Category 5
- One of strongest tropical storms recorded
- Winds reached 195mph
What were primary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
- 6.340 killed
- boats destroyed
-power lines broke
What were the secondary effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
- 670,000 left homeless
-communities destroyed by storm surge
-people can't see family
-lack of food
- no contact
- no water due to broken pipes
- no electricity
-no coral reefs - no fish
- debris killed people
What are the typical features of a tropical storm shelter?
- shutters and bars on windows
- high to protect from storm surge
- flat roof so can stuff can be dropped on, people can be rescued from it, air ambulance can land on it
- Made of concrete
-v shape to make it stream line
- on stilts to keep off ground therefore not damaged by flooding
-other uses e.g school so people familiar with it
What is the best option for reducing damage caused by tropical storms?
I think planning and preparation is the best method for reducing damage caused by tropical storms. Teaching people evacuation methods means that they know what to do if a strom hits. This means that they can get to a safe place quickly therefore they are less likely to get injured or killed. To add to that, if the buildings are made out of concrete they will be more likely to survive the wind thereofre they are less likely to collapse and injure or kill someone.
What were the social effects of typhoon Haiyan?
- more than 6000 people dead
- nearly 1600 evacuation centres set up
- electrocution live electrical wires in water
- more than 14mil affected
- over 1 mil homes damaged
- mobile phone coverage lost
- high risk of malaria
What were the economic effects of typhoon haiyan?
- planes and helicopters requested from military
- Mobile phone coverage lost
- total estimated cost of damage was $20 billion
What were the environmental effects of Typhoon Haiyan?
- 6 metre high storm surge
- snakes entered buildings
- statement water attracted mosquitoes
Case Study Mount Sinabung, Indonesia Properties
Destructive margin - Indo- Australian plate under Eurasian plate
Effects of Mount Sinabung
- Gases - Co2 S02 H2S
- Pyroclastic flow
-lahars mud flows
What are some economic secondary effects of mount etna?
Ski areas ruined slopes closed -family businesses closed temporarily
tourist stations closed -
orange orchard and vineryards destroyed
What are the social secondary effects of Mount Etna?
Ski areas ruined slopes closed schools shut houses damaged by eathquake caused by volcanic activity
How dan education help prevent effects of wildfires?
- e.g SMOKEY BEAR USA SCHEME
- longest scheme running public scheme advertising camaping
- educates people so know how to prevent fire and what to do if one starts
What are air drops?
- it is when aircraft fly over fire and drop water onto it
What are fire lines?
- gap in vegetation or other combustible material
- all fuels removed and surface scraped to mineral soil
- between 6 inches and 3 feet wide
What is back burning/controlled burning?
- process of planning and applying fire to predtermined area e.g area prone to wildfires
- prevents build up of fuels
Why do people live near volcanoes?
- lots of geothermal energy
- fertile land
- cant afford to live elsewhere
- lots of tourism
- only speak language from that area
- family live there
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