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A level: Regeneration EQ3- How is regeneration managed?
Terms in this set (57)
The 'marketing' aspect of regeneration designed to attract business, residents and visitors. It often includes re-imaging
Making a place more attractive and desirable to invest and live in or visit
The basic physical systems of a place - can be economic (highways, energy distribution, water and sewerage facilities, telecommunication networks) or social (public housing, schools, hospitals)
What are the two characteristics of infrastructure projects which explain the need for government funding?
High cost and longevity
What is the role played by private companies in infrastructure projects?
The private sector is used to design, build , finance and/or maintain public sector assets in return for long-term payments or profit from the initial revenue generated.
What is the role of the infrastructure and Projects Authority, formed in Jan 2016?
It oversees long-term infrastructure projects and secures private sector investment, including for crossrail and broadband.
What is the difference between hard regeneration and soft regeneration?
Hard = capitail investment, physical buildings and infrastructure. Soft = planning, skills and education
What is the role of the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG)
Oversees Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs)
What is the role of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)
It markets the UK's image abroad and protects cultural and artistic heritage. Includes Sport England and the National Lottery
What is the role of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)?
Oversees the Environment Agency, Natural England and the National Park Authorities - advocates environmental sustainability
What is the role of 'UK Trade and Investment?
Supports UK business and encourages inward investment. Oversees the Regeneration and Investment organisation
What is the role of the Regeneration and Investment Organisation (RIO)?
Involved in large-scale 'flagship' projects. By 2015 RIO had 40 large projects of over £100 million needing private investmnet e.g. Liverpool Waters
Other than government departments, which other players may be involved in local regeneration projects?
1. Mayors of metropolitan regions 2. non-governmental organisations e.g. Pressure groups, charities, businesses 3. local individuals
Define 'Flagship regeneration projects'
Large-scale, prestigious projects, often using bold 'signature architecture' The hope is to generate a positive spin in a place
What is the difference between regeneration and the 'redevelopmnet' or 'renewal' schemes popular in the 1960s and 1970s?
These were more restricted programmes of slum clearance and housing improvements at neighbourhood level, rather than large economic or social strategies
Give 4 key government lead regeneration policies in place or continuing in 2015?
1. Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) 2. City Deals 3. Coalfields regeneration trust 4. Coastal communities fund 5. Directly elected Mayors
What factors affect the type of regeneration policy in any place?
1. Politics of the local area 2. External factors e.g global economic recession 3. Legacy of past regeneration policies 4. Degree of 'pump priming' needed 5. Location 6. Legacy of the past
What is 'pump priming'?
Where the government allocates funds for regeneration expecting outisde investment to help. Private and charitable investmnet is then expected at a higher ratio
Give three examples of the role government plays in planning of regeneration
1. Planning laws 2. Planning for fracking 3. Planning for housing needs
What is 'planning gain'?
A tool by which planner can allow development if there is a benefit to the local community e.g a community centre paid for by the developer
What is 'planning blight'?
Where slow decision-making leaves investors unwilling to commit until a decision is made - can lead to a downward spiral
What say does the EU have in UK planning law?
It has made Environmental Impact Assessments compulsory for some development.
Why, since 2013, have developers been able to apply directly to the DCLG's planning inspectorate, bypassing local government
Because the government sees delays in making decisions as negative to economic growth. This may be the case where a local authoritie has a poor record of planning decisions.
Why, in 2015, was a fast-track system introcued to award oils and gas companies exploration licenses?
The government sees it as a national priority to increase secure energy supplies and economic prosperity.
What has been the approach of recent conservative governments to housing supply
A market let approach - Right to buy policy of 1980-95
What has been the result of recent government policy centred around local decisions on housing supply
1. Underinvestment 2. Shortfall of private and rented accommodation 3. Large number of empty properties 4. Hotspots of inflated housing areas 5. Planning restrictions hindering developers 6. Affordability of homes.
Why does government involvement in capital markets potentially have significant impacts on national and local growth?
because capital markets are based on dealing in shares, bonds and other long-term investments
What was the policy known as the 'big bang'
Where the conservative government began the process of de-regulatin financial markets to encourage more investment in an attempt to make the city of London more competitive
What was the impact of financial deregulation?
It encouraged European and US banks to open in Longon, resulting in banking, finance and business services creating almost 30% of the Uks GDP by 2008. double that of 1986
What is the flip-side of deregulation policies
They are partyl blamed for the 2008 financial crisis, subsequent low economic growth and austerity measures
Summarise UK immigration policity changes since 1950
1950-77: restrictive to limit unexpected immigration from Commonwealth countries 1997-2010: Pro-immigration by labour administrations 2010 onwards: increasingly restrictive, based on only allowing the most 'beneficial' migrant in to the country.
Give examples of the immigration opportunities that have been restricted in recent years
1. Post study work visas for overseas students have been scrapped 2. Incoming immigration of extended families has been reduced 3. 'benefit tourism' has been targetted. 4. Higher salary threshold before people are allowed residence
What the the impact of asylum seekers on places
Not entitled to work and cannot choose their location of residence. Often housed in hard-to-let properties and substandard 'white' estates - leading to tensions.
Summarise the main areas of government policy that can impact on the nature of a place and levels of deprivation
1. Planning policy 2. Deregulation of capital markets 3. Migration policy
Give an example of planning by local authorities in an aim to make an area more attractive to investment
Science Parks - knowledge-based industries underpin the UK's current economic growth
Give examples of the range of local interest groups that may play a role in regeneration decisions
Chambers of commerce; youth groups; retirement groups; special-interest groups; conservation groups; preservation societies; affluent and active retirees
Give examples of the variety of regeneration strategies used.
Techhology led; Infratructure led; Sport, Art and Culture led; Retail led, Heritage led, New settlements, sustainable communities
Outline the features of a retail-led plan
Decision made on changes to use buildings to influence shop types and locations of malls, pedestrianised areas and alcohol free zones
Give two main challenged to the UK high street
1. Competition from out of town shopping centres 2. The rapid growth of internet shopping
How does research show that 'convenience' shopping has changed?
Changed from a 'one-stop-shop' to regular 'topping up' of groceries in local stores.
How has the high-street offering changed in recent years?
An increased interest in specialist relailers and a demand for leisure means that high streets offering a mixture of bars, restaurants and cafes, beauty services and gyms are more likely to prosper
Give examples of government actions aimed at making the highstreet more attractive to shoppers
1. Click and collect locations 2. Pop-up shops 3. street markets 4. changed to business rates 5. competitions such as 'Britain's Best High Street'.
Why is tourism led regeneration a volitile and risky strategy?
1. Dependent on weather 2. fast changes in image and preference of tourists 3. Developments in technology/social forums 4. Terrorism threat
What has been the attraction of sport-led regeneration for many areas?
1. The construction and running stages of a major event provides jobs, much needed infrastructure and buildings. 2. Can be a catalyst for longer term regeneration.
Strategies to make the London 2012 Olympic Park attractive were centred on what?
Flagship developments and legacy
Give examples of some of the flagship developments of the 2012 Olympic Games
1. The international Quarter new business area 2. 'Here East' digital and creative hub 3. Main stadium 4. Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park 5. 10,000 new homes and associated services
Give examples of types of culture-led regeneration
1. City of Culture 2. Music festivals at different scales 3. flagship arenas and galleries 4. 'cultural quarters' in cities 5. connections with prominent artists/authors 6. connections wihth films or TV programmes.
Approximately what percentage of UK farms use some form of diversified activity in their business.
Name three types of rural diversification
1. Agriculture -based e.g. Farm shops 2. Non-agricultural e.g. Converting farm buildings into offices or bunk barns or hosting music festivals 3. Environmental schemes e.g. Planting woodland or Natural England's Environmental Stewardship scheme.
How can rebranding help to regenerate the UK's deindustrialised cities?
By stressing the attraction of places, creating a specific place identity building on industrial heritage - this can attract national and international tourists and visitors.
Give a simple timeline of Glasgow's rebranding and regeneration
1983: 'Miles better' campaign led to 'European City of Culture' 2004-13: 'Scotland with Style' rebranding campaign 2014: Commonwealth games 2015: Hosted the 'Turner Prize'
What is meant by the 'new rural economy'?
Rural areas have become much more like urban economies in thier activities with most employment in services rather than primary production.
Why is there growing difference between rural areas?
More accessible areas have benefitted more than remote areas on the whole - better able to respond to changes
What is an increasingly important aspect of the rural economy?
Making money from the appeal of landscapes, rural environments and cultural heritage
Which is now seen as the more effective model of rural-regeneration
grass-roots, diverse, networked partnership approaches rather than top-down.
Give examples to the range of rural rebranding strategies
1. Heritage and literary associations 2. Farm diversification 3. Specialised, valorised products 4. Outdoor pursuits 5. Adventure leisure and tourism 6. technology and infrastructure development 7. Themed events 8. Ecovillages
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