(Chapter 13) How Safe Is Our Food Supply?

Terms in this set (52)

1. Food-borne infection: any food-borne illness caused by pathogens hat multiply in the human body. bacteria itself infect the body or produce toxins with the body.
Food-borne intoxication is caused by consuming a food that contains toxins produced by pathogens.
2. Salmonella - contaminated meat, dairy products, seafood, fresh produce, and cereal have caused outbreaks, bur poultry and eggs are foods most commonly contaminated with the bacterium. because it can be killed by heat, foods that are likely to be contaminated should be cooked thoroughly.
Campylobacter jejuni - leading cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in developed countries. common sources are undercooked chicken, unpasteurized milk, and untreated water. it grows slowly in cold temperatures and is killed by heat, so careful storage and thorough cooking help prevent infection.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) - is a bacterium that inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals. It comes into contact with food through fecal contamination of water or unsanitary handling of food. There are different strains of E. coli that cause different symptoms. One strain of E. coli, found in water contaminated by human or animal feces, is the cause of "travelers' diarrhea." Another strain, E. coli O157:H7, produces a toxin in the body that causes abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and in severe cases a form of kidney failure called hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
3. Viruses make us sick by turning our cells into virus-producing factories.
Mold produce toxins under certain conditions. When we consume it, we absorb toxins in our blood stream. Cooking and freezing stop mold growth but do not destroy toxins that have already been produced.
Parasites can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated food and water with animal's feces or raw/undercooked meat.
4. Taking preventative measures such as a fight BAC method: clean - wash hand and surfaces often, separate - don't cross-contaminate, cook - cook to proper temperatures, and chill - refrigerate promptly.
1. Some contaminants are eliminated from the environment quickly because they are broken down by microorganisms or chemical reactions. Others remain in the environment for very long periods, and when taken up by plants and small animals, they are not metabolized or excreted. When these plants or small animals are consumed by larger animals that are in turn eaten by still larger animals, the contaminants accumulate, reaching higher concentrations are each level of the food chain. This process called bioaccumulaion.
2. Risks of pesticides contaminating the environment and harmful to consumers. In organic food there are no pesticides which it eliminates the chance of contaminating with these chemicals. Benefits of pesticides it prevent plant diseases and insect infestations. And have higher crop yield food resulting to cheaper cost. However for food organic is produced using methods hat emphasize a reduction in the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizes, the recycling of resources, and the conservation of soil and water to protect the environment. Also it's healthier and is not chemically altered and has a lower impact on the environment.
3. Choosing a wide variety of foods, thus avoiding excessive consumption of contaminants that may be present in any one food. Washing and in some cases peeling fruits and vegetables. To minimize consumption of contaminants, remove the skin, fatty material, and dark meat from fish. Use cooking methods such as broiling, poaching, boiling, and baking, which allow contaminants from the fatty portions of fish to drain out.
1. Desirable genes from plants, animals, bacterial cells and transferred to plant cells. A piece of DNA containing the gene for a desired characteristic:
a) The desired gene is identified.
b) The gene is clipped out using DNA-cutting enzymes.
c) Various techniques are used to transfer the gene into the plant cell.
d) The gene migrates to the cell's nucleus is integrated into the plant's DNA.
e) Modified plant cells are identified and placed into cell culture medium to multiply.
f) Special culture medium allows the cells to differentiate into the various types of cells that make up a whole plant.
g) Each mature plant carries the new gene and the trait for which it codes.
2. It can make food resistant to viruses. Contain enriched nutrients. By making plants resistant to herbicides, insects, and various plant disease, this technology has increased crop yields and reduced damage from insects and plant disease. By altering enzyme activity and other traits, biotechnology is being used to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetable and create product that greater consumer appeal. Also used in food processing.
3. Created health problems and environmental damage. Severe allergic reaction, obesity. Non-genetic species and varieties may eventually become extinct, and the genes for the traits they possess may be lost forever. An environmental concern about GM crops is that they will be used to the exclusion of other varieties, thereby reducing biodiversity. Another environmental issue is the possibility that GM crops will create "superweeds" producing a fast-growing weed that would compete with the domesticated species. There is also concern that crops that have been engineered to produce pesticide-resistant insects.
4. Premarket approval is required, and information about the safety of the new plants at a relatively early stage of development is asked to be provided to a FDA.