102 terms

FTCE Professional Education Test

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What is an indication of the IQR (Interquartile range)?
It gives you an indication of how much the data values "stretch" from the center of the data.
IQR = Q3 - Q1.
The IQR contains the center 50 percent of the data.
What is an advantage of criterion reference assessment over norm-refernce?
An advantage of criterion-referenced tests over norm-referenced tests is their diagnostic, placement, and remediation use. Teachers in Florida are expected to analyze student performance data to address remediation needs of individual students.
Formative assessment
occurs before and during instruction. It is critical to teachers' instructional decision making. Formative assessments include screening, diagnostic, progress monitoring, and various informal classroom assessments.
Summative assessment
occurs after instruction has taken place at the end of an instructional unit, regular grading period, or school year. Summative assessments include outcome assessments and report cards.
Screening assessments
are administered to all students. BOY ( baseline), MOY (midyear), EOY (end of the year).
Diagnostic assessment
are administered (usually individually) to selected students for the purpose of identifying learning strengths and weaknesses with critical skills and concepts.
Progress monitoring assessments
are regularly administered (that is, dynamic, ongoing) assessments used to evaluate students' academic progress for the purpose of making data-based decisions regarding instruction and interventions.
When should progress monitor assessment should be used?
Progress monitoring should occur routinely (weekly, biweekly, or monthly) and use valid and reliable assessments that are sensitive to small changes in student academic performance.
Informal classroom assessment
Informal classroom assessments include teacher observations, anecdotal records, classroom questioning, checklists, guided practice, student activities, portfolios and work samples, projects and products, teacher-made quizzes and tests, and homework. Progress reports.
Outcome assessments
Outcome assessments include the end-of-year statewide, standardized assessments; standardized norm-referenced tests; and end-of-grading period assessments. Data from these assessments are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional program.
What are two type of summative assessments?
Outcome assessments and report cards.
Assessment that occurs at the end of an instructional unit is __________ assessment.
summative
Formative assessments that are designed to identify a student's strengths and weaknesses are __________ assessments.
diagnostic
What are the types of formative assessments?
Screening assessments, diagnostic, progress monitoring, informal classroom assessment.
What does reliability refferest to?
Reliability refers to the consistency of a measurement over time and repeated measurements. If a teacher gives alternate forms of the same test periodically over several months and the students' performance scores remain relatively the same, the test has reliability.
Validity
has to do with whether the assessment instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. Validity can be determined by comparing a test score against some separate or independent observation of whatever is being measured. If a teacher wants to measure math skills, the test must measure math skills, not reading skills.
Normed-reference test
norm-referenced test (such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress) is one that assesses students by comparing their performance to that of a norm group.
Usually, the norm group is representative of students of the same age or grade level as the test-takers.
A criterion-referenced test
assesses students by comparing their performance to a predetermined level of mastery. Florida's statewide, standardized assessments are criterion-referenced tests.
when a few scores are either very high or very low compared to the rest of the scores, the ___________ is a better choice to use for the average.
median
If a large number of the scores are the same, the __________ can be used to report which score or scores occurred most often— but only if used in conjunction with the mean and/ or median.
mode
The _________ is (most commonly) the total number of correct responses on an assessment.
raw score
The __________ for a raw score is its distance in standard deviations from the mean of the scores on the assessment. To compute a ______________, use the following formula: (raw score- mean) ÷ (standard deviation)
z-score
___________scores usually are derived from percentiles and compare test performance using nine intervals that are numbered in order from 1 to 9.
Stanine
By law, a student's performance on a statewide EOC subject assessment constitutes _________ percent of the student's final course grade for that subject.
30
______________________ ________________ have long been used in the assessment of music, art, drama, and physical education.
Performance assessments
_____________ ________________ are usually more evident in science, math, social studies, and language arts.
Process/ product assessments
_____________ __________ is a term used to describe a traditional teacher-made test composed of true-false, multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the-blank, or essay (commonly called constructed response) questions.
Traditional assessment
_______________ questions depend less on teacher judgment when grading,
Objective
__________ questions require more teacher judgment in the scoring process.
subjective
the ____________ team is the group of individuals who make decisions about the services and accommodations or modifications provided to a student with a disability.
(IEP) Individual Education Plan
The___________team is the group of individuals who make decisions about the ESE services provided to students identified as gifted.
(EP) Education Plan
The IEP team must meet at least ________ a year to review the IEP.
once
During an IEP the regular education teacher is
The regular education teacher is a full participant in the development of the IEP, including the determination of intervention strategies and accommodations, appropriate supplementary aids and services, and program modifications.
The EP team must meet at least once every _______ years for students in kindergarten through grade 8 and at least once every ___________ years for students in grades 9 through 12.
3, 4
An _________ ______________ (also called a grade-level team) consists of two or more teachers from different subject areas who collaboratively plan for the students they commonly instruct.
interdisciplinary team
What is section 504 plan ?
A Section 504 plan is designed to ensure that students with physical or mental disabilities that substantially limit a major life activity are provided with the same opportunity as other students without disabilities to learn at school (Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973). The team that determines a student's eligibility for special services under Section 504 writes the plan and is called the 504 team for the student.
When a parent, teacher, or other member of the school staff raises a concern about a student's behavior or academic progress, a _________________ is assembled to collect and review information about the student to decide how best to meet the student's educational needs.
(CST) Child Study Team
Under the Florida Consent Decree, an ________________________ Committee is a team of individuals who are responsible for overseeing an English Language Learner's English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program.
ELL (or LEP)
The __________________________________________ oversees disciplinary actions taken against the certificate of an educator certified to teach in Florida.
Education Practices Commission (EPC)
LY
K-12 grade ELL enrolled in classes specifically designed for ELLs
LP:
LP: 4 − 12 grade ELL who is aural/ oral full English proficient based on testing, but for whom the reading/ writing test is pending.
LF:
LF: K-12 grade former ELL who is followed for a 2-year period after having exited from the ESOL program
LZ:
K-12 grade former ELL who exited the program more than 2 years ago.
ZZ:
K-12 grade non-ELL
morpheme:
The smallest unit of meaning; for example, the word dogs has two morphemes: the root dog and the s that indicates plural.
phoneme:
The smallest unit of meaningful sound.
Jean Piaget proposed that learning involves three basic processes:
assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
According to Piaget, what are the stages of cognition, or thinking?
sensorimotor (object permanence), preoperational (egocentric, centration, symbolic thought, concrete operational (decenter, class inclusion, seriation) and formal operational (abstract concepts).
Preoperational is characterized by what children lack---
reversibility, conservation
__________________ involves fitting new information into existing mental structures, which Piaget called schema.
Assimilation
According to Piaget Accommodation requires...
requires modifying current schema or creating new schema in order to take the new data or information into account
Piaget three type of knowledge:
Physical, logical-mathematical, and social knowledge.
What is sensorimotor cognition
birth - age 2. Learning is through the senses and motor development and through trial and error.
What happens during preoperational stage of cognition stage?
stage, from ages 2 to 6, children are highly imaginative, and they enjoy games of pretend. Egocentric, centration, symbolic thought.
During preoperational stage of cognition children lack-
reversibility and conservation
During concrete operational stage,
ages 7 to 11, children develop the ability to take another point of view(decenter).
-can think of the whole and its parts simultaneously (class inclusion), and can arrange objects in sequential order (seriation).
The last stage of development, ___________ _______________ begins at about age 12 and continues to adulthood. Adolescents who reach this stage begin to think more easily about abstract concepts,
formal operational
Jerome Bruner view learning as a process, what are Bruner cognitive development?
enactive mode --->Iconic mode ---> Symbolic mode.
Lev Vygotsky's 1978 work is based on the premise that learning cannot be understood without consideration of its cultural and social context.
...
The ___________________development is the gap between a student's independent level of problem-solving ability and the student's potential level of problem-solving ability that can be achieved with assistance from an adult or more capable peer (Gestwicki, 1999).
zone of proximal
field _______________ (having the ability to perceive objects without being influenced by the background)
independent
field _________________(having the ability to perceive objects as a whole rather than as individual parts).
dependent
_______________ learners rely on physically experiencing it;
concrete
_____________ is a learning theory based on using immediate consequences to either weaken or strengthen a learner's observable response.
Behaviorism
reinforcement
pleasant consequence that follows a behavior, is an essential strategy associated with a behavioristic approach to learning.
When using extrinsic reinforcement, most teachers prefer to use ____________ ___________, in the form of things given to students (such as tangible rewards or special privileges)
positive reinforcement
___________ _______________, which is removal from a situation perceived by the student to be unpleasant (such as a night off from doing homework).
negative reinforcement
Extinction ( behaviorism)
Extinction is the process of weakening and eventually eliminating the occurrence of a behavior usually through the removal or withholding of reinforcement.
Positive punishment
Positive punishment involves giving an undesirable consequence (for example, extra work) in order to deter undesirable behavior.
___________ ________________ involves taking away a desirable reward (for example, free time) in order to deter undesirable behavior.
Negative punishment
____________________ is a learner-centered approach to teaching that emphasizes teaching for understanding, predicated on the concept that students construct knowledge by making connections between present learning experiences and the existing knowledge they already possess.
.
constructivism
Modifications (students with disabilities)
are changes in what a student is expected to learn and may include changes to content, requirements, and expected level of mastery.
Accommodations (students with disabilities)
are changes that are made in how the student accesses information and demonstrates performance (Rule 6A-6.03028( 2)( e), FAC).
Psychosocial characteristic of 11-15 years old (young adolescents).
Adolescent egocentrism (often preoccupied with self), imaginary audience(others watching and judging them, peer pressure, personal fable (believe their personal situation is unique), invincibility fable ( believe that bad things happen to other people, no them, so will engage in risky behavior).
Direct instruction
is a teacher-led (but student-centered) instructional strategy in which the teacher as a subject-matter expert provides systematic and explicit instruction.
lecture method,
the teacher uses one-way communication to attempt to convey knowledge to the learner orally. The recommended length of time for teacher lectures is 10 to 15 minutes.
Constructivist instruction
is based on the constructivist belief "that learning is an active process [in which prior knowledge plays a powerful role], that it has social aspects, and that it is context specific".
-
Discovery learning .
is designed to encourage students to be active learners while exploring new concepts, developing new skills, and figuring things out for themselves
in _________________________________, students create a presentation as an end-product to the investigation,
project-based learning
in _________________________________________, students present their results, but an end-product might or might not be required.
problem-based learning
_________________________ teaching, developed by Palincsar and Brown (1984), is designed to increase students' reading comprehension.
Reciprocal
Differentiated instruction is the practice of matching instruction to students' needs.
...
Skilled facilitators use ___________________ questions (open-ended questions that allow many correct responses) to engage students in higher-level thinking and generate ideas, reactions, or opinions
divergent
Facilitators employ _________________ questions (closed-ended questions that have a limited number of correct responses) to obtain facts,
convergent
Active listening skills include:
repetition, paraphrasing, summarizing, asking questions
Prompting or asking leading questions
is the technique of providing hints or suggestions to encourage students to keep trying and not give up. Wait time.
Redirecting is the technique of
posing a question or prompt to students for a response or to add new insights.
Metacognition is the process of
thinking about and monitoring one's own thinking. It refers to a person's awareness of, reflection on, understanding of, and control over his or her mental operations.
Metacognitive strategies can be achieved through the following steps:
1. Direct explanation 2. Modeling 3. Guided practice 4. Application
_________________reasoning is the process of drawing a general conclusion based on one or more examples.
Inductive
_________________________ reasoning is the process of using an accepted rule to draw a conclusion about a specific example. Syllogistic reasoning and conditional reasoning are part of ___________________ reasoning.
deductive
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)
prohibited schools from requiring that students participate in flag salutes or other patriotic ceremonies as a part of the school curriculum.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)—
banned the practice of racial segregation in schools, striking down the notion of "separate but equal" schooling.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)—
found that school-created prayer in school, even when students pray voluntarily, is unconstitutional.
Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)—
found prohibition of teaching evolution to be unconstitutional.
Plyler v. Doe (1982)—
decided that a state's statute denying school enrollment to children of illegal immigrants "violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment."
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988)—
gave schools the right to censor student speech in circumstances where the speech is contrary to the schools' "basic educational mission."
Lee v. Weisman (1992)—
prohibited clergy from offering prayer at public school ceremonies.
Fluency is the ability to read a text
accurately, quickly, and expressively. It includes rate (words per minute), automaticity (fluent processing of information), and prosody (pitch, phrasing, intonation, and expression).
The three main ways children acquire the majority of their vocabulary are through
talking with adults, listening to adults read to them, and reading on their own.
A morpheme is
the smallest unit of meaning in the language.
formal assessment
Formal assessments are systematic, preplanned methods of testing students that are used to determine how well students have learned the material that is being taught in the classroom. In other words, formal assessments provide a way to know what the students know.
There are four main types of formal assessments:

Standardized tests
Program tests
Essay tests
Criterion-referenced tests

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