Key Concept Question & Answer
Terms in this set (44)
How did religions help strengthen political, economic, and cultural ties within societies?
It provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. Religion also made kings out as divine, usually.
How did religions promote a sense of unity?
Codifications and further developements of existing religous traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by Ex-Twelve Tables, Noble Truths, Book of songs (China)
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism?
This religion was monotheistic, as the Assyrian, Babylonians, and the Roman empires conquered a diversity of Jewish states they contributed to the growth of Jewish communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism(s)?
The development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings and reincarnation
What is a "universal religion?"Where did universal religions exist by 600 C.E.?
Appealed to everyone lower or higher class, spread messages
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism?
No distinctions between social classes
How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 C.E.?
Religions were spread along the silk roads, including Buddhism, to India and China.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?
Promoting social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China including rulers.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism?
A balance between humans and nature.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity?
The core teachings drew on the basic monotheism of Judaism and morality.
How and where did Christianity spread by C.E.?
It spread through missionaries towards many parts of Afro-Eurasia
What are the main characteristics of Greco-Roman philosophy and science?
Love of wisdom, rational thinking- reason & logic, less emphasis in Gods, more emphasis on natural laws, applied ideas to social science, politics
How did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies?
Encouraged social order through males or equal roles between males and females.
What other religions and cultural traditions were common by 600 C.E.?
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
How did humans' reliance on the natural world influence religion?
They feared or exalted nature, because it was the difference between life or death daily.
How did humans relate to their deceased ancestors?
reincarnation/nirvana: ancestors were with either among them or were in the state of nirvana
How did art and culture develop to 600 C.E.?
Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments.
What literary works influenced later eras?
Greek tragedy and Indian epics are examples of early influences.
How did different societies' architectural styles develop?
societies evolved (or not) due to geography such as climate and terrain, and people who govern, produce wealth, provide education, taxes, and fight in the military.
What examples of syncretism reflect the Classical Era to 600 C.E.
Combinations of different forms of beliefs or practice, Hellenistic Age- Greeks influenced Persia, Buddhism-adopted Hindu beliefs, reincarnation, soul released into Nirvana/Moksha, Karma/Noble Truths
What is an "empire", and what were empires' common characteristics during the Classical Era
An empire is a large area of land ruled by an emperor or a form of administration. Common characteristics were powerful military, good economics, and great administrative systems.
How did the numbers & size of Classical empires compare to the Ancient Era?
They grew dramatically by imposing political unity or areas where there had previously been competing states
What were the most influential of the Classical Era empires?
The Roman, Persian, and Chinese empires were the most influential. Other smaller empires included the Gupta empire of India and the Mayan empire of South America.
What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories?
Centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies.
What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires in the Classical Era?
In order to organize their subjects the rulers created administrative institutions including centralized governments, elaborate legal systems, and bureaucracies (such as in China, Persia, Rome or South Asia).
How did imperial government let their population know that their government was "in charge"?
helped unify and develop stricter laws
What role did trade play in creating and maintaining empires?
spread ideas, adv. technology, disease, writing, religion, culture
What unique social and economic characteristics existed in empires?
Hierarchies, labor systems, gender roles, and family relations.
What function did imperial cities form?
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires (such as Persepolis, Chang'an, Pataliputra, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, or Teotihuacan.)
What social classes and occupations were common in empires?
The social structures of all empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, and caste groups.
What labor systems provided the workers for Classical Empires?
Corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities and family and household production.
Describe the gender and family structures of Classical Era empires?
Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.
What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else?
Germanic tribes and steppelanders outside of the Han dynasty invaded the Classical empires, which were weakened by being so spread out, to gain the benefits of being a Roman, Persian or Hani. Declined due to moral, as empires grew comfortable with their lives of luxury. This created weakness that could not hold up against outside forces. Roman soldiers lost pride in fighting for Rome, and only cared about money, resulting in weaker defenses from external forces.
What were the environmental and social weaknesses of Classical Empires?
If the flood water was too low, then there was no water for the crops, if it was too high, then it ruined houses
What external weaknesses contributed to the end of Classical Empires?
External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions (such as between Northern China and Xiongnu; Gupta and the White Huns; or among Romans, Parthians, Sasanids, Kushan).
How did Classical era trade networks compare to Ancient era networks?
They extended their military power by developing supply lines and building infrastructure, including defensive walls and roads
What forces contributed to the changes between the two eras?
Demand for raw materials and luxury goods and better land and water routes.
What was commonly traded along these trade networks?
Food crops and luxury goods such as silk and spices.
How did trade & communication networks develop by 600 C.E.?
Land and water routes created trans-regional trade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the peoples and societies of the Americans.
What technologies enabled long-distance overland and maritime trade?
Yokes, saddles, stirrups, domesticated pack animals, and main-population of monsoon winds.
Besides the physical goods, which intangibles also traveled along trade networks?
Alongside the trade in goods, exchanges in people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
What crops spread along Classic Era trade networks?
A spread of crops, including sugar, rice, and cotton from south Asia to the Middle East encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques (such as the development of the Qanta system).
What effects did diseases have on Classical Empires?
Not only did they decrease the population dramatically, but it was also a reason why the empire had collapse.
What was the relationship between trade networks and religions?
People traveled, bringing their religion with them. The trade networks subjected the religion to other beliefs and customs.
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