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POLS 1202 Lyle Scruggs Revel Questions Spring 2018
Terms in this set (129)
Who defined politics as "who gets what, when, and how"?
Which of the following would illustrate a question asked by comparative politics researchers?
Why do countries make different decisions under similar political rules?
Why is the research question asked by Aristotle still relevant to comparative scholars today?
because it is still unclear how to best combine limited and effective governemnt to sustain democracy
What event in the 1960s led comparative politics scholars to consider a range of questions centered on the factors contributing to economic development and political stability?
How does a comparative approach to politics move beyond merely stating an opinion about events in the world?
It helps researchers avoid jumping to conclusions by exploring a wide range of similar cases that might experience different outcomes
Which of the following illustrates how comparative researchers might effectively study democratization in the developing world?
They would look to the broader world to see if there is a larger pattern of events related to democratization in the developing world that occurred in similar and dissimilar societies.
Which of the following is an example of a falsifiable hypothesis?
Democracy will not survive in Iran because Islam and democracy are incompatible.
If you were examining the causes of civil war and started with cases that differed in attributes but shared outcomes, you would be using which basic approach to the comparative method?
Method of Difference
What distinguishes correlation from causation?
Correlation measures the observed association between two or more variables, while causation is a process or event that produces an observable effect.
Which of the following is a way in which quantitative research differs from qualitative research?
Reliance on statistical data.
__________ is a state's ultimate responsibility for and legal authority over the conduct of internal affairs.
What is the core tension in a collective action problem?
The tension between individual and collective interests.
Which of the following best illustrates Thomas Hobbes's solution to the collective action problem in social orders?
Governments must be allowed to limit individual freedom to some degree to ensure the collective good.
How do states differ from governments?
States are abstractions, whereas governments are concrete organizations.
Which group provides an example of loose overlapping between the nation and the state?
What is an example of a government in comparative politics?
German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
A form of political organization characterized by ambiguous territorial sovereignty and multiple, often overlapping lines of authority is known as _____________.
What is the relationship between natural environment and political interests in the formation of early states?
Increased food production in Medieval Europe led to larger and denser populations, while changing political interests increased competitions among rulers to consolidate control over territory.
How is the natural environment connected to late state formation?
States with difficult terrain found constructing legitimate and effective state institutions more challenging and more expensive.
What does the State Fragility Index measure?
The likelihood that a state is vulnerable to collapse.
Why might the government of Japan be considered less democratic than the government of the United States?
While Japan enjoys higher rates of political participation than the United States, it generally has lower levels of contestation for power.
What seems to be the upper limit on the term of office for directly elected presidents?
Which of the following statements best characterizes Madisons Dilemma?
It is difficult to balance effective government with limited government.
What is the relationship between policy areas and federal systems?
For a system to qualify as federal, the constitution must grant governments at the local, state, or provincial level exclusive control over at least one policy area.
What principle prevents the legislature from firing a president under normal conditions?
Separation of survival
What is a consequence of an institutional arrangement that has both separation of origin and separation of survival?
When the president and the legislative majority disagree about policy, the result might be government deadlock.
If your political party won the most seats but not a majority in a parliamentary election, what would you be required to do under a parliamentary system.
Find a coalition partner to obtain the necessary majority needed to govern.
Which of the following illustrates an outcome in a semi-presidential hybrid system?
The election of Jacques Chirac of the conservative Rally for the Republic Party as president, with the selection of Lionel Jospin of the Socialist Party as prime minister
Which of the following is an argument against parliamentary supremacy?
Parliamentary majorities cannot be trusted to uphold limited government.
What country uses mixed electoral rules?
Which of the following best characterizes regimes in the study of comparative politics?
Regimes are the most basic form of a state's government.
Which of the following statements best illustrates the nature of political accountability in a non-democratic regime?
The leaders of a country removing members of the military officers corps that placed them in power.
Which of the following describes an effect of an authoritarian regime on the lives of citizens?
The government uses coercion to limit political pluralism but citizens are still permitted to engage in limited amounts of social pluralism.
As a leader of an authoritarian state, which of the following would you be more inclined to work toward as you govern?
A broad demobilization of citizens in society coupled with efforts to discourage citizens from increasing their levels of political engagement.
Which of the following statements best characterizes a totalitarian state?
The government tolerates no opposition to its ideology or policies.
If you believe that certain races are by nature superior to others, you most likely support which of the following?
In a communist state, which of the following would you be most likely to experience?
Radical efforts to redistribute wealth in society.
Why does communism tend to be associated with utopian radical left politics while fascism is associated with nostalgic, extreme right politics?
While both are totalitarian ideologies, they emerged in different and competing social contexts in Europe.
The leaders of a military regime are known as _____________?
In a theocratic society, in what way is religion analogous to a totalitarian ideology?
Religious authorities seek to use the institutions of the state to reshape society.
At a broad level, which of the following best characterizes the historical trends toward and away from democracy?
There have been three "waves" of democratization, two of which were followed by reverse waves in which many democracies collapsed into dictatorships.
Which of the following situations best demonstrates solidarity?
Citizens coming together following a natural disaster and helping to rebuild a devastated community.
As a researcher attempting to measure the civic culture of South Africa, which of the following research actions would help you measure civic engagement
Measuring the density of the social groups and associations within South Africa.
Which of the following statements supports the hypothesis regarding class conflict and its relationship to regime change?
Societies that experience economic development see a newly emerging middle class fighting for political rights against the established upper class working to maintain their positions of privilege and power.
Which of the following best characterizes how military leaders view the identity of the armed forces within a state?
What effect did changes to U.S. foreign policy in the 1970's and 1980's have on the global patterns of regime change?
The U.S. redefinition of its national interests led to an increased emphasis on human rights and a decline in support for non-democratic leaders.
How did changes in the Catholic Church affect regime change?
It created greater opportunities for democratic regime change as Catholic doctrine shifted from indifference to democracy to support of democracy.
When countries that are geographically close to each other adopt similar regimes, it is known as _____________________.
The neighborhood effect
Which of the following is the best response when your teacher asks you to explain regime changes in states using the death of longtime dictators?
Short-term explanations are useful for explaining outcomes in politics, but they often vary widely among cases and as such cannot effectively explain larger or whole patterns of regime change.
Which of the following would seem to present the greatest challenge to the growth of democratic regimes in the future?
Russian and Chinese indifference to democracy.
If you developed ______________, you would have an awareness of being a member of a specific economic group.
In terms of identity, what distinguishes the proletariat from the bourgeoisie?
The proletariat have an emerging class-consciousness highlighting their exploitation and their economic interests.
What type of bonds connects people through blood, marriage, or other family relations?
In what way does a primordialist explanation of the politicization of identity differ from a constructivist explanation?
Primordial explanations emphasize a perceived threat to a group's ability to practice its collective identity and accompanying traditions, while constructivist explanations emphasize social context.
If you were using Samuel Huntington's arguments to explain global conflict, which of the following would you deploy as evidence to support you claims?
the intensification of conflict between Islamic and non-Islamic states in the aftermath of the Cold Way and the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Which of the following is a shortcoming of primordialist explanations of identity?
it cannot adequately explain why identities change over time.
Which of the following actions would best illustrate a constructivist understanding of political identity?
The government of a newly independent state engaging in the centralization and standardization of educational policies.
What does constructivism rely on when assessing the mobilization of political identity within a country?
As the new leader of a newly independent nation, which of the following would be the most effective step toward building a new national identity for your country?
Promote mass literacy in order to reduce the isolation of cultural "islands"
What is the relationship between social context and political identity in Brazil?
Brazilian leaders faced a population that was majority black and to prevent a backlash against policies worked to develop an identity that was inclusive.
Which of the following statements regarding Muslim countries and democracy is accurate?
Nearly all predominantly Muslim countries in the world are classified as "partly free" or "not free" by Freedom House.
Which of the following theories would argue that democracy is inherent in the DNA of Protestantism?
As a student of comparative politics, which of the following should cause you to question the primordial connection between Protestantism and democracy?
There is an apparent lack of connection between the spread of Protestantism and democracy in the contemporary world.
Which of the following would support a primordialist claim related to Christianity and democracy?
Researchers would have to see consistent support for democracy in areas where Christianity dominates.
Actions taken by the United States and other powers to retain access to valuable natural resources and prevent regional conflicts are examples of __________________.
What does the resource curse suggest to researchers in comparative politics?
Thats a reliance on a single natural resource for economic development has political consequences for the state.
Why does secularization matter with respect to democratic transition?
Secularization can trigger a change in cultural values within a state that will make society more likely to support democratic institutions and processes.
As the leader of a state, which of the following paths would you try to pursue if you wanted to increase the odds of democratization in your country.
Economic development policies that promote sustained, equitable economic growth to enhance the secularization of society.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between economic modernization and democracy in Muslim countries?
Many Muslim states have not experienced economic development in a way that transformed cultural values to such an extent that they are supportive of democratic institutions and processes.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the constructivist approach to understanding gender?
"Warriors are made, not born."
If people believe that a woman who is single and lives on her own has loose morals, which of the following best categorizes their beliefs?
They tend to view gender as a category and believe that the woman's behavior is somehow transgressive of established norms surrounding femininity.
Which of the following statements about gender attitudes is most accurate?
All else equal, as a society becomes wealthier, both men and women tend to have more liberal views about gender roles and sexuality.
Using modernization theory, which of the following would need to happen to gender relations for democracy to develop in a non-democratic state?
Women would need to be allowed to enter into the political process and society would need to increasingly accept the norm of gender equality.
In a country with a traditional gender gap, women tend to be much more ________________ than men.
Which of the following best explains the political leanings of women in a society with a traditional gender gap?
Women tend to have lower educational levels than men and are often more religious.
If the United States had women in the legislature proportional to the numbers in the general population, which of the following results would you most expect to see?
Public policies would become more liberal than they were in the past.
Which of the following countries has used gender quota laws to increase women's representation in politics?
In what way did the social context of Algeria relate to the adoption of conservative family law code in the aftermath of the country's independence?
A lack of cohesion among political elites in postcolonial Algeria led to violent battles between reformists and conservatives that delayed the adoption of a family law code.
If you were a woman seeking to reduce the wage gap, which of the following would be the most effective means of achieving this goal?
Choose not to have children.
Which of the following is an accurate description of the free rider problem in collective action?
People receive benefits regardless of their contribution
A good that everyone can consume regardless of their contribution is called a _________ good.
What distinguishes group-specific factors from political context with respect to the formation of social movements within a state?
Group-specific factors focus on how leaders use resources while the political context focuses on the number of similar groups that exist and whether mobilization is likely
Which of the following affects the political opportunity structure for interest groups within a state?
The amount of mobilization allowed by the state
As the head of a newly independent state, which of the following would be a consequence of your endorsing a corporatist form of government?
You might be adopting a system that makes in impossible for the state to regulate existing interests in the hope that new interests will emerge in the future that better reflects groups in society,
What can pluralist interest group structures only thrive in democracies?
A pluralist interest group structure requires a wide-open political opportunity structure that will allow for the most efficient interest groups to rise to the top and represent citizens' interests.
Which of the following is a benefit of the corporatist interest group system?
The officially recognized groups in society gain a direct voice in influencing government policy.
What distinguishes a political party from an interest group?
Political parties seek to gain power in government, while interest groups seek to influence government policy and outcomes.
In which of the following ways do multiparty systems clearly embody limited government?
Most multiparty systems lead to coalition governments that disperse political power
In a political system with a high level of salient political identities but a relatively closed institutional context, which of the following would you expect the country to experience?
a moderate degree of party fragmentation.
What is the use of violence by one state against another called?
Which of the following best characterizes a civil car?
The state and society are at war with each other.
In what way is the colonial legacy of a state related to civil war as a form of political violence?
States with colonial legacies often have weak political institutions that are vulnerable, and political leaders often turn to the same methods of repression used by European powers to maintain their power.
Which of the following is likely to develop in societies where the dominant groups assert themselves to make minority groups feel politically insecure.
Which of the following opportunity structures would be most conducive to revolutionary forces as opposed to other forms of political violence?
A state that is incredibly weak due to high levels of inequality and poverty where citizens share a collective sense of grievance that has widespread popular support.
In which of the following situations would a revolution be most likely?
A state where the is collective violence between groups subject to the state's authority, where both the state and insurgents enjoy widespread popular support, and where the insurgent group is successful.
Which of the following tactics did Chinese Communists deploy to increase levels of popular support for their struggle against the Chinese Nationalists?
They appealed to the nationalistic and materialistic interests of the peasants.
Terrorists ___________ achieve their long-term political goals.
In terms of opportunities, which of the following distinguishes genocide from suicide terrorism?
a context of ongoing warfare.
What is a key difference between China and Rwanda that led one to experience a revolution and the other to experience genocide?
The political leadership in China did not view mass murder as politically useful, while the Rwandan leadership did.
In a(n) ________________ state, the central government is responsible for resource allocation and investment decision and often owns many of the countries industries.
Why do taxes create a collective action problem for the state?
Many citizens believe that it is someone else's responsibility to pay for the provision of public goods
Which of the following arguments supports the thesis that non-democratic states engender economic development?
Leaders in non-democratic states are free from pressures of domestic interest groups and are better positioned to make economic decisions that will benefit society as a whole.
What is the relationship between property rights and non-democratic states with respect to economic development?
In a non-democratic state, property rights are less secure, creating uncertainty and reducing citizens' incentive to work hard and invest, which hinders economic development.
Which of the following statements regarding the relationship between government type and economic development is accurate?
There is no clear empirical evidence that strongly supports an argument that either form of government is better at encouraging stable and continued economic development of the state.
Which of the following is emphasized in economic liberalism?
Minimal state involvement in the economy.
As an advocate of social democracy, which of the following economic proposals would you support?
a government plan to increase social welfare policies for citizens.
Which of the following best demonstrates the lessons that leaders can learn from the existing evidence on levels of state intervention in the economy and economic development?
There is no precise institutional arrangement that can guarantee economic development, and there is enough variation to suggest that leaders should not become dogmatic in their approaches to the subject.
Which of the following was generally true of settlement colonies?
Settlers established representative assemblies.
What was the relationship between the natural environment and European colonization strategies that led to varying long-term paths of economic development?
Areas with a harsh natural environment raised questions about the long-term feasibility of the colony, leading political leaders to create extractive colonies over settlement colonies.
Compared with Germany, the size of the "welfare state" in the United States is _______________.
Which of the following is the best illustration of a social insurance program?
The provision of Social Security for the elderly in society.
As a leader of the state, if you wanted to adopt progressive redistribution policies, which of the following would you do?
Increase taxes on the wealthy to pay for health care for the poor.
What differentiates the debate over the desirability, efficacy and efficiency of social insurance in the United States from the debates in Europe?
In the United States there is a great deal of disagreement over the scope and depth of social insurance policies, while in Europe the political issue is considerably more settled, with higher levels of agreement.
Using the reasoning advanced by social scientists Alva and Gunnar Mydral, which of the following helps explain the redistributive policies of states?
States want to maintain a large population and avoid dramatic drops in population, and therefore support redistributive policies that encourage families to have children who will help provide for citizens in their senior years.
Why might poor people be opposed to redistribute policies that would benefit them?
Because many poor voters believe that redistributive policies are a handout that citizens do not deserve.
_______________ occurs when tax burdens increase as an individual's income goes up.
What is an effect of strong religious identities on redistributive policies?
It can dilute the importance of economic interests and lower the levels of redistribution in society.
As the leader if a large business, which of the following actions would you support if you wanted to reduce the level of redistributive policies within the state?
The fragmentation of labor unions and a reduction in their overall size.
What is the relationship between state strength and redistributive policies?
States with higher bureaucratic capacity are often associated with a greater possibility for redistributive policies and higher levels of government spending.
What makes the levels of globalization in China and India remarkable?
They were both isolated from the world in the 1970's
Which of the following organizations is/are formed independently of any state's authority?
The growth in the number and scope of transnational issues is referred to as _____________.
How the European Union (EU) illustrate the challenge of globalization for democracy?
EU elections generate low levels of voter interest and turnout, leading to concerns that EU policies are determined by a small group of unelected and unaccountable bureaucrats.
What types of policies were promoted by the Washington Consensus?
Neoliberal economic policies that limited the role of government in domestic economies.
What is illustrated by the economic success experienced by China over the past two decades?
That globalization is not a plot by wealthy states to exploit the developing world.
Which of the following most accurately characterizes the relationship between economic globalization and the race to the bottom among states?
Wealthy states have generally avoided the race to the bottom as globalization has occurred concurrently with increased social spending, whereas developing states have been more likely to experience it due to diminished state capacity,
Which of the following is the best illustration of a conditional cash transfer program?
Brazil's bolsa familia program
What effect does the increase in autonomist movements caused by globalization have on the concept of state sovereignty?
The concept of state sovereignty is unaffected by these autonomous movements, as the leaders of these movements generally seek to establish their own state.
Why might leaders in an ethnically diverse state worry about the effects of globalization?
Globalization can create spaces that allow ethnic nationalist groups to strengthen and mobilize, which can erode the efforts of the national government to create a common state identity.
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