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chapter 13 Judgement, decisions, and reasoning cognitive psychology Dr. Eakin
Terms in this set (36)
process of making choices between alternatives
process of drawing conclusions
reasoning based on observations or reaching conclusions from evidence
inductive arguments lead to what is _______________ true
1. representativeness of observations
2. number of observations
3. quality of the evidence
factors contributing to an inductive argement
"rules of thumb"; shortcuts that are likely to provide the correct answer to a problem, but are not foolproof
events that are more easily remembered are judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered. ex. are there more words with r as the first letter or the 3rd
occurs when a correlation between two events appears to exist, but in reality there is no correlation or it is much weaker than it's assumed to be. Ex. Stereotypes
oversimplified generalization about a group or class of people that often focuses on the negative.
the probability of A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties of A resembles the properties we associate with B
Ex. Job likelihood experiment
relative proportion of different classes in the population
the probability of a conjunction of two events cannot be higher than the probability of the single events.
Ex. because there are more bank tellers than feminist bank tellers, stating that Linda is a bank teller INCLUDES the possibility that she is a feminist.
law of large numbers
the larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population
tendency to generate and evaluate evidence and test their hypotheses in a way that is biased toward their own opinions and attitudes
tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to our hypothesis and to overlook information that argues against it. (broader)
expected utility theory
theory that if people have all the relevant information, they will make a decision that results in the maximum expected utility
outcomes that achieve a person's goals
emotions that people predicts they will feel for a particular outcome that effects decision making
tendency to avoid taking risks
emotions that are not caused by having to make a decision. Ex. a person's general disposition to be happy/mad; something that happened earlier that day; environment
Procedure in which a person must take an active step to CHOOSE a course of action Ex. choosing to be an organ donor
procedure in which a person must take an active step to AVOID a course of action Ex. choosing not to be an organ donor
status quo bias
tendency to do nothing when faced with making a decision Ex. staying with your tv provider even when better options are available
risk aversion strategy
decision making strategy that is governed by the idea of avoiding risk. often used when a problem is stated in terms of gains
risk taking strategy
decision making strategy that is governed by the idea of taking risks, often used when a problem is stated in terms of losses
idea that decisions are influenced by how the choices are stated, or framed.
approach to studying decision making that combines research from psych, neuroscience, and economics to study how brain activation is related to decisions that involve potential gains or losses
proposer is given money and makes an offer to responder as to how money should be split between them. Shows that people are more likely to be angry with an unfair person than an unfair computer
reasoning that involves syllogism in which a conclusion logically follows from premises
first two statements in a syllogism
series of three statements: two premises and a conclusion.
final statement in a syllogism, which follows two premises
premises and conclusion are statements that begin with all, no, or some.
when the form of the syllogism indicated that its conclusion follows LOGICALLY from its premises
tendency to think a syllogism is valid if its conclusion is believable
specific situation represented in a person's mind that can be used to help determine the validity of syllogisms in deductive reasoning.
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