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Ch 13 Study Guide RNA (Conklin)
Terms in this set (18)
What is the three main differences between RNA and DNA?
RNA has ribose, uracil, and is single-stranded. DNA has deoxyribose, thymine, and is double-stranded
What makes up an RNA nucleotide?
5carbon sugar(ribose), phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
What are the three types of DNA?
Messenger RNA--Carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins, to other parts of the cell.
Ribosomal RNA--they hold together the protiens and read the start codon for tRNA.
Transfer RNA--transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it specified by the coded messages in mRNA.
What is transcription? What type of RNA is made during transcription? What enzyme helps make RNA during transcription?
Transcription is the process where the segments of DNA serve as a template to produce complementary RNA molecules. It requires the RNA polymerase enzyme. Messenger RNA is made.
What is the purpose of the promoter region on DNA?
It is the only region that DNA binds to and they are signals in the DNA molecule that show RNA exactly where to begin making the other RNA.
What is RNA editing? Relate this to introns and exons.
The process that requires pieces of the RNA molecules to be cut out before they can go into action.
Introns = portions that are cut out and discarded.
Exons = remaining pieces that are spliced back together to form the final mRNA.
Where is mRNA made? Where does it go?
Eukaryotes-nucleus then moves to the cytoplasm to play a role in the production of proteins.
What is a codon? What process is it important for: replication, transcription, or translation?
A codon is a three letter word or sequence that makes up a genetic code. They consist of three consecutive bases that specify a specific amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain. It is important to translation.
What happens during the process of translation? Where does it occur?
The mRNA it transcribed in the nucleus moves to the cytoplasm and a ribosome attaches to a mRNA in a molecule. As the ribosome reads each codon it of mRNA, it directs tRNA to bring the specified amino acid into the ribosome. One at a time, the ribosome attaches each amino acid to the growing chain.
What is an anti-codon?
3 bases on tRNA that match the mRNA codon
What is the central dogma of DNA?
Information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein. (Many exceptions)
What is the difference between gene and chromosome mutations?
Gene mutations produce changes in a single gene and chromosome mutations produce changes in a whole chromosome
What is the point mutation? What happens in each type of point mutation?
A point mutation involves changes in one orange few nuclear tides which usually occur at a single point in the DNA sequence.
In substitution, one base is changed into a different base and affects no more than a single amino acid and sometimes there's no effect at all. Insertions and deletions which either delete or insert a base from the DNA sequence and normally change the whole codon grouping
What is a frameshift mutation?
Changes every amino acid that follows the point of mutation and can alter the proteins so much that it is unable to perform its normal function.
What are the different types of chromosome all mutations and explain what happens in each type?
Deletion-involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome.
Duplication-produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome.
Inversion-reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome.
Translocation-part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another.
What is the Mutigen?
Chemical or physical agents in the environment. Chemical-pesticides, alkaloids, tobacco smoke, environmental pollutants. Physical-electromagnetic radiation, x-rays, and ultraviolet light.
How can mutagens be harmful?
They can be harmful because they disrupt the normal function of genes and can change a DNA sequence permanently.
What does it mean if an organism is polyploidy? Use plants as an example. How does it affect the organism?
Polyploidy means that an organism has an extra set of chromosomes. Polyploidy plants are generally larger and stronger than diploid plants - - bananas and limes - - occur naturally in citrus plants, often through spontaneous mutations.
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