AP Physics Chapter 17, 18, 19

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Terms in this set (...)

Electrical Potential Energy
Potential energy due to a charge's position in an electric field.
Electric Potential
The ability of charges to do work
Difference in Electric Potential
Electric Potential increases when 2 unlike charges are separated and increases when 2 like charges are pushed together
Grounding
Touching an object to earth to eliminate excess charge
Capacitor
A device that stores electric charge for later use
Capacitance
The ability of a conductor to store energy in the form of electrically separated charges
Leyden JAr
Capacitor used by Ben Franklin
Dielectric
Insulating material inserted between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor to increase the capacitance
Electric Current
Electron flow from higher to lower potential
Photovoltaic Cell
Solar Cell- converts sunlight directly to electricity.
Circuit
Electrons flow around a closed loop called?
Coulomb
Unit for quantity of electric charge
Electric Curren
The rate of flow of electric charge (Coulomb/Second)
Electrolyte
Solute that in solution conducts electricity
Drift Velocity
Speed of an electron through a conductor
Resistance
Opposition to flow of electric current
Ohm's Law
Current through a conductor caries directly with applied potential difference and inversely with resistance
Resistors
Allow proper amount of current through circuits
Potentiometer
A variable resistor
Diode
Small resistance to current in one direction but high in the other direction
Direct Current
Charges move in only one direction with - charges moving from lower to higher electric potential
Alternating Current
Terminals of the source of potential difference are constantly changing sign
Electric Power
The rate at which electrons do work
Transmission
Energy is lost during _______________
Kilowatt-hour
Energy produced by 1000 watts for 1 hour
Schematic Diagram
Models the setup of an electrical apparatus
Electric Circuit
A path through which charges can flow
Load
An element or group of elements in a circuit that dissipates energy
Source of EMF
A battery or electric generator that produces electric energy
Terminal Voltage
The EMF of the battery or generator
Series Circuit
Electric circuit in which all the current travels through each device, one after the other
Effective resistance
Resistance of a single resistor that could replace all the resistors in the circuit
Total Voltage Drop
The sum of the voltage drops across each individual resistor
Current in a Series Circuit
I=V/R, Where R is the effective resistance
Voltage Divider
An application of series resistors to obtain the desired voltage from a battery that supplies a larger voltage
Photoresistor
A device whose resistance is changed by light striking it
Parallel Circuit
Allows current to split and travel through several devices at once
Effective Resistance
Resistance of a single resistor that could replace all the parallel resistors
Series-Parallel Circuit
A combination of series and parallel circuits
Fuses and Circuit Breakers
Switches in a circuit that prevent overloads
Short Circuit
Without a load, a circuit has little resistance to the movement of charges (Currents increases and wires overheat)
Fuse
A short piece of metal that melts when the heating effect of the current reaches a set magnitude
Circuit Breaker
An automatic switch that opens when the current reaches a set value
Ammeter
Used to measure current in a circuit
Voltmeter
Used to measure voltage drop across an entire circuit or part of a circuit
Kirchhoff's First Rule
At any junction, the sum of all currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all currents leaving the junction
Kirchhoff's Second Rule
The sum of changes in potential around any closed loop of a circuit must be zero
Voltage
Potential difference is the same as...
lower
If a large and small sphere have the same charge, the large sphere will have __________ potential (Lower or Higher)
Greater
If a large and small sphere have the same potential, the large sphere will have the _____ charge (Greater or Less)
Farad
SI unit of capacitance
Constant
Ohm's law only applies when the resistance of a device is _____________