52 terms

Electrical Potential Energy

Potential energy due to a charge's position in an electric field.

Electric Potential

The ability of charges to do work

Difference in Electric Potential

Electric Potential increases when 2 unlike charges are separated and increases when 2 like charges are pushed together

Grounding

Touching an object to earth to eliminate excess charge

Capacitor

A device that stores electric charge for later use

Capacitance

The ability of a conductor to store energy in the form of electrically separated charges

Leyden JAr

Capacitor used by Ben Franklin

Dielectric

Insulating material inserted between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor to increase the capacitance

Electric Current

Electron flow from higher to lower potential

Photovoltaic Cell

Solar Cell- converts sunlight directly to electricity.

Circuit

Electrons flow around a closed loop called?

Coulomb

Unit for quantity of electric charge

Electric Curren

The rate of flow of electric charge (Coulomb/Second)

Electrolyte

Solute that in solution conducts electricity

Drift Velocity

Speed of an electron through a conductor

Resistance

Opposition to flow of electric current

Ohm's Law

Current through a conductor caries directly with applied potential difference and inversely with resistance

Resistors

Allow proper amount of current through circuits

Potentiometer

A variable resistor

Diode

Small resistance to current in one direction but high in the other direction

Direct Current

Charges move in only one direction with - charges moving from lower to higher electric potential

Alternating Current

Terminals of the source of potential difference are constantly changing sign

Electric Power

The rate at which electrons do work

Transmission

Energy is lost during _______________

Kilowatt-hour

Energy produced by 1000 watts for 1 hour

Schematic Diagram

Models the setup of an electrical apparatus

Electric Circuit

A path through which charges can flow

Load

An element or group of elements in a circuit that dissipates energy

Source of EMF

A battery or electric generator that produces electric energy

Terminal Voltage

The EMF of the battery or generator

Series Circuit

Electric circuit in which all the current travels through each device, one after the other

Effective resistance

Resistance of a single resistor that could replace all the resistors in the circuit

Total Voltage Drop

The sum of the voltage drops across each individual resistor

Current in a Series Circuit

I=V/R, Where R is the effective resistance

Voltage Divider

An application of series resistors to obtain the desired voltage from a battery that supplies a larger voltage

Photoresistor

A device whose resistance is changed by light striking it

Parallel Circuit

Allows current to split and travel through several devices at once

Effective Resistance

Resistance of a single resistor that could replace all the parallel resistors

Series-Parallel Circuit

A combination of series and parallel circuits

Fuses and Circuit Breakers

Switches in a circuit that prevent overloads

Short Circuit

Without a load, a circuit has little resistance to the movement of charges (Currents increases and wires overheat)

Fuse

A short piece of metal that melts when the heating effect of the current reaches a set magnitude

Circuit Breaker

An automatic switch that opens when the current reaches a set value

Ammeter

Used to measure current in a circuit

Voltmeter

Used to measure voltage drop across an entire circuit or part of a circuit

Kirchhoff's First Rule

At any junction, the sum of all currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all currents leaving the junction

Kirchhoff's Second Rule

The sum of changes in potential around any closed loop of a circuit must be zero

Voltage

Potential difference is the same as...

lower

If a large and small sphere have the same charge, the large sphere will have __________ potential (Lower or Higher)

Greater

If a large and small sphere have the same potential, the large sphere will have the _____ charge (Greater or Less)

Farad

SI unit of capacitance

Constant

Ohm's law only applies when the resistance of a device is _____________