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Bob Jones Earth Science Chapter 23
Terms in this set (52)
The sun and all the planets and other objects its gravity holds in orbit around it
Named after Dutch astronomer Gerald Kuiper; most astronomers believe this to be a 4.6 billion-year-old solar system refuse (leftover matter from planet building) Believed to be the source of comets.
An ancient model of the solar system that placed the earth at its center and the sun with the planets orbiting the earth in perfectly circular paths.
Greek philosopher who tried to solve the problems with the geocentric theory by introducing the idea of deferent (shifting of each planet's sphere) and epicycles (the planets actually moved in smaller circles).
the study of the mystical influences of heavenly bodies here on earth by tracking the motions of the stars, sun, planets, and moon. (These beliefs deny the power & sovereignty of God)
A model of the solar system that places the sun at its center with the earth and the other planets orbiting around it.
Polish astronomer and a church cleric who is credited with proposing the heliocentric model that was adopted during the Renaissance period (the early 1500's). His work was published in 1543 after he died and was called "The Revolutions"
Believed to be the most accurate astronomer of his time
Using his new telescope, he observed that not every object in the heavens orbits the earth; became very critical of the geocentric theory
Assistant to Tycho; brilliant mathematician; published "New Astronomy" in 1609; proved that the planet's orbit isn't a circle but rather an ellipse (with 2 points inside the ellipse called foci)
The regular, elliptical path one astronomical body takes around another, can also mean the act of following such a path
A geometric figure that appears as a flattened circle, geometrically constructed from two points called foci (singular: focus). The orbit of a planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus.
when a planet is closest to the sun
when a planet is farthest from the sun
developed the laws of gravity (gravitational force that keeps the planets and other members of the solar system in their orbits)
According to the International Astronomical Union (IAU), an astronomical body that orbits the sun, has enough mass to form a spherical shape, and has enough gravity to clear the region of its orbit of smaller objects of any significant size other than its moons; originally identified as wandering stars among the fixed stars in the heavens.
According to the International Astronomical Union (IAU), an astronomical body that orbits the sun and not another object, and has enough mass to be rigid and nearly spherical. However, it has too little gravity to have cleared its orbit of other objects of significant size, so it can share its orbit with other bodies.
natural satellite of a planet - a rocky object in the solar system
small solar system bodies (SSSB)
Any astronomical object in the solar system that doesn't meet the International Astronomical Union (IAU) definitions of a planet or dwarf planet; includes moons, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids.
A planet about the same size and density as the earth; one of the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars)
a planet similar in size and composition to Jupiter; one of the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
Planets can also be classified by their location in the solar system compared to Earth's orbit-- Planets that are closer to the sun than the Earth are called_____. These can only be seen for a few hours before sunrise or after sunset when the glare of the sun is below the horizon.
planet passes directly between the earth and the sun so that we see its dark silhouette against the suns bright disk
Planets that are farther from the sun than the Earth (from the Earth, we can see most of their disks because we spend most of our time in "front" of them as they are illuminated by the sun)
The apparent backward motion of the planets in Earth's sky.
Closest to the sun, smallest, short year-long day, no known moons
Brightest planet in our sky, appears to rotate backwards, has an atmosphere; hottest planet
the third planet from the sun
Reddish color, no geomagnetic field, 2 moons (Phobos & Deimos), largest volcano in the solar system (Olympus Mons), many erosional features suggest that at one time this planet had large quantities of liquid water flowing over its surface.
Largest planet, has a equatorial bulge, has many moons (the four largest were discovered by Galileo and are called Galilean moons--Io, Europa, Callisto, & Ganymede); interior contains metallic hydrogen; has strongest magnetic field in solar system
the largest moon of Jupiter and the largest moon in the solar system (larger than planet Mercury)
Second largest in size after Jupiter and one of the four "gas giants", has 62 moons (largest one is Titan); has a ring system around it containing 12 main rings made of mostly water ice particles;
third "gas giant"; discovered by William Herschel in 1781; sometimes classified as an ice giant; axial tilt is 97.8 degrees so it seems to lie on its side; the coldest planet
most distant planet from the sun; discovered in 1846
A rocky object in orbit around the sun that meets the IAU definition of a SSSB; they can be large enough to be observed from Earth.
An astronomical object in orbit around the sun made of rock and different kinds of ices; meets the IAU definition of an SSSB; when close enough to the sun it forms a coma and tail that are often visible to the unaided eye from Earth.
A rocky object in orbit around the sun that meets the IAU definition of a SSSB. Unlike an asteroid, this is too small to be observed from Earth.
a meteoroid that falls through the earth's atmosphere and heats up until it glows; also called a shooting star
A meteor large enough to have survived the fall through the atmosphere and hit the ground, larger ones can form craters
Name the 5 dwarf planets
Pluto, Ceres (was previously classified as the largest asteroid), Haumea, Makemake, Eris (which is larger than Pluto)
a wealthy American businessman & astronomer who built Lowell Observatory in order to search for another large planet (like Neptune). He died before finding it.
discovered Pluto in 1929; worked at Lowell Observatory after Lowell died
Name the 4 types of Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB)
Planetary moons, asteroids, comets, meteoroids
Mars & Jupiter
Most asteroids have orbits between these two planets. This region is known as the asteroid belt.
Name 2 large families of asteroids
Trojans and Greeks. These families lie in the same orbit with Jupiter; Greek family is ahead of Jupiter and Trojans are behind Jupiter.
English astronomer who studied comets and noted a regular pattern in the appearance of one bright comet from historical records and successfully predicted its next appearance to be for many years after his death. This comet was named after him.
2 main parts of a comet
head and tail
Comets that appear at regular time intervals; could be as short as many months to several centuries between appearances.
A spherical region of comets that surrounds the solar system.
occur when the earth passes through dusty debris from comets
Near-earth asteroids (NEAS)
Asteroids that closely approach or cross the Earth's orbit.
Is no longer a planet because it has too little mass to clear its orbit of smaller objects, so it fails to meet the definition of a planet.
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