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Educ Psych Final: Behavioral and Cognitive Theories
Terms in this set (44)
When stimuli and responses occur simultaneously, in the same space they are learned-they become associated
This is particularly true when occurrences are repeated
Examples of contiguity or how it may be used in the classroom
Flashcards or repeating phrases ex. if you want students to know there are behavioral theories of learning then repeat "behavioral theories of learning"
What two behavioral theories of learning is Thorndike known for
1. Trial and error and connectionism
2. The Law of Effect
Trial and Error and Connectionism
believes that contiguity is not enough and that humans and animals learn by trial and error, gaining speed with each trial until it leads to a "satisfying state of affairs"
Example of trial and error connectionism
free throws in a basketball game
The Law of Effect
Believes learning is a function of the consequences of behavior rather than simply contiguity. The outcome of a response that causes it to be learned (stamped in) or not learned (stamped out).
If it feels good, you will do it and if it doesn't then you wont.
An example of the Law of Effect
A teacher wants her classroom to be fun and for students to learn. If she can make learning fun, then students are likely to feel good and want to do more of it (learning).
What are the more instructional applications of thorndikes work?
Rewarding correct trials
attracting attention and generalizing
An example of the Law of Effect in the classroom
The classroom climate plays a big roll, you miss this in online instruction
give a lollipop with a quiz or give praise after a correct trial this gives the child an incentive to continue doing well
(Pavlov) also called learning through substitution because it involves the repeated pairing of two stimuli so that eventually a previously neutral stimuli (conditioned) comes to elicit the same response (conditioned response) that was previously elicited by the first stimulus (unconditioned stimulus).
Example of classical conditioning
The case of Robert and Mrs. Grundy *
* and Math anxiety
almost always physical or emotional
Explain how you would reverse a math phobia in the classroom with classical conditioning
Math (neutral stimuli) is presented by a nice teacher who uses games and fun ways to teach math (unconditioned stimulus- fun games). Now, math (conditioned stimulus) elicits fun rather than creating anxiety.
-might see if there is another way a student may take a test
(Skinner) Voluntary and deliberate actions are called operants which may be conditioned through reinforcement. The reinforcer (good grades, praise, money, etc) must be reinforcin to the person.
Useful charts on p.126 and 128
How are Skinner and Pavlov's theories different?
Involuntary responses to specific situations such as blinking, being afraid, and nausea may be conditioned Pavlov's classical way. Other intentional and deliberate behaviors like reading and kissing a baby which are voluntary and don't involve a specific stimuli may be conditioned Skinner's way through reinforcement.
According to Skinner, what do you do to encourage a behavior (ex. doing homework)?
!. positive reinforcement (reward-give a positive)
ex. when students do their hw, give them praise
2. negative reinforcement (relief- remove a negative)
ex. when students do their hw, drop a quiz
According to Skinner, what do you do to discourage a behavior (ex. talking to friends in class)?
1. punishment (castigation-give a negative)
ex. when a student talks in class, give him detention
2. punishment (penalty-remove a positive)
ex. when a student talks in class, take points from her grade
Give an example of the two ways you can discourage a behavior in the classroom
child is talking too much...
1. castigation= make them sit alone in front of everyone in the class
2. penalty= took them from their friends
Observational learning Theory
(Bandura) Also known as Modeling or Social Learning Theory- consists of 4 phases of learning from models
Suggests that people learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modeling.
What are the four phases of learning from models in the observational learning theory?
1. Attention (see it):
-attend to models we respect
-complexity, rate, and distinctiveness of stimuli=why it's important to present info clearly and in an organized way
-incentives like saying this will be on the test
2. Motivation (internalize it)
3. Reproduction (Do it):
- memory guides performance
-ex. writing a paper give an example of a good thesis
4. Retention (Remember it):
- takes place by pairing or contiguity
Why is the observational learning theory often called the bridge between behaviorist and cognitive theories?
...because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
What are examples of uses of the observational learning theory?
1. Model good behavior- practice what you preach
2. Know that there are also symbolic models like books, instructions, t.v., music- use these as well
3. Use peers as models - athletes, popular kids, etc.
4. Point out positive behaviors and reward them- enhance self esteem to encourage motivation to learn through imitation
Computer Model of Memory
a structural model that proposes the memory consists of three stores: sensory, short-term, and long-term.
-info is detected by sense organs and sent to the sensory memory, if it is attended to then it enters the short-term memory and if it is rehearsed it enters the long term memory.
What are the two types of long-term memory?
1. Non-declarative: procedural or implicit, often tacit or unconscious
2. Declarative: explicit, potentially conscious, recallable information
a. Semantic: knowledge that underlies language-principles, facts, strategies
b. Episode-personal, memories of self-doing/observing things
Metacognitive knowledge/ metacognition
the executive controller of the computer model- the kinds of skills involved are monitoring skills
online def: ]"cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills. ... can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem-solving.
How can teachers help students develop metacognition?
1. through modeling (including oneself and other students)
2. direct instruction in problem solving in one's content area (be it math, english, etc)
3. teaching for transfer form one use to another
4. teaching/encouraging students to learn how to learn
- Students are given a concept NOT in its final form
- requires students to develop their own cognitive skills
-"The acquisition of new information or knowledge largely as a result of the learner's own efforts. Often contrasted with reception or expository learning and is considered an instructional tool of the constructivist classroom.
How does discovery learning relate to the current movement toward constructivist approaches in education?
- Knowledge is held by students, not by the teacher
- there is a balance between having no teacher and over-helping, they act as a mediator between the student and the learning/comprehension
(teacher doesn't control; every aspect)
What are Bruner's 5 steps for discovery?
1. formulating and then clarifying a question or problem
2. collecting examples, making relevant observations
3. arriving at a hypothesis, must be intelligent and observation based
4. devising and conducting tests
5. applying, extending, generalizing, and "going beyond" the new information
What is an example of discovery learning and what is the teachers role in the classroom?
ex. American and Chinese students learning about Easter, take them to an Easter service, etc
-the teacher should give very little intro/ minimal instruction and be focused on facilitation (a guide)
What are the 4 conditions that facilitate discovery learning?
1. set: a predisposition to react to stimulation in a given manner
2. need state: arousal/attention level of student
3. mastery of specifics: learning of detail
4. mastery of learning: discovering relationships among knowledge
Receptive Learning (instructivism)
(Ausubel) The teacher provides instruction and gives the relatively final form of info--> this leads to high levels of understanding and generality...believes discovery may waste time (criticism)
-"a type of learning that involves primarily instruction of tuition rather than the learner's own efforts."
(Ausubel) An instructional technique where the teacher bears the responsibility or organizing and presenting information in its relatively final form. Also called direct instruction.
Describe advanced organizers and how you could use them in Ausubel's theory?
- complex sets of ideas or concepts given to the learner before the material to be learned is presented
- meant to provide cognitive structure to which new learning can be anchored
- meant to increase recall and prevent loss of dissociability
-ex. In the Easter example, this could be considered a video clip, an article, or a short lecture
What are the two main circumstances where you should use advanced organizers?
1. When students have no relevant information to which they can relate the new learning to
2. When relevant subsuming information is already present but not likely to be recognized as such by the learner
-term used by Ausubel to describe a concept, an idea, or combination of concepts or ideas that can serve to organize new information
- cognitive structure is therefor composed of subsumers
What are the 3 cognitive science findings for teachers?
1. must get and maintain attention
2. info must be meaningful
3. info must be organized
Compare Discovery and Receptive-oriented teaching methods
-Ausubel says learners should be provided with organization, advanced organizers
-Bruner thinks students should come up with their own organization, more meaningful
How are Bruner and Ausubel's theories similar?
- They both are considered instructional techniques
- They both rely on the scientific findings for teachers
An instructional model wherein parents, siblings, other adults, and especially teachers serve as a combination of model, guide, tutor, mentor, and coach to foster intellectual growth among learners
How are the learner and teacher viewed in cognitive apprenticeship?
- The teacher is seen as the expert and.they show this through different methods or ways to promote the development of expertise
- The student is the learner who observes, enacts, and practices the metacognitive processes of the instructor
- novice v. expert
- the teacher may be anyone who knows more about a particular topic
What are the methods in the cognitive apprenticeship approach?
-Modeling: learning through observation/imitation
-Coaching: guiding specific aspects of a students performance/cognitive behavior
-Scaffolding: providing support so that students can accomplish tasks in their zone of proximal growth that would otherwise be too difficult
-Fading: removing supports as the learner becomes capable of performing a task without assistance
-Articulation: learners are encourages to put their conclusions, descriptions, and principles into words
-Reflection: learners are asked to think about their cognitive activities and to compare them to those of others or with abstract models
-Exploration: generalizing about what has been learned or accomplished and investigating and testing potential applications of their learning
What does "global before local" mean and why is it a significant part of the cognitive apprenticeship approach to instruction?
-the recommendation that learners should be given some notion of what the final performance, final task, the final global rendition will be before being asked to work on the individual sub-tasks that make up the whole
- start with a broad application of skill where you conceptualize the whole task before executing its parts
- you see what the expert can do, which increases their motivation
What other cognitive theories are similar to cognitive apprenticeship?
Vygotsky's zone of proximal growth where the teacher recognizes the potential and facilitates their learning to that point
Give an example of the methods of cognitive apprenticeship in the classroom
M-bring in a basket, deconstructing it
Ex- have them make baskets
C&S- walk around and observe/fix mistakes
Art-report back, draw it, make video, assesment
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