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a body of land with water on three sides


a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland


made up of a city and the surrounding countryside and run like a tiny independent country


an open area that served as both a marketplace and meeting place


someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority


a few people hold power


all citizens share in running the government


captive workers in Sparta


the 20 states into which Darius divided the Persian Empire


the official who ruled a state in the Persian Empire under Darius


Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end

direct democracy

every citizen votes first hand on laws and policies

representative democracy

citizens choose a smaller group to make laws and government decisions on their behalf


thinkers who ponder questions about life

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