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ASWB Exam: Human Development, Diversity, and Behavior in the Environment
Terms in this set (44)
What is Freud known for?
Research on stages of human development: 5 stages of psycho-sexual development
What are Freud's 5 stages of psycho-sexual development and when do they occur?
oral (birth-18 months), anal (18 months-3), phallic (3-6), latent (6-puberty), genital (puberty-death)
Describe the oral stage (birth-18 months):
The gratification focus involves the mouth & the primary need is security.
How are security needs met in the oral stage (birth-18 months)?
When the caregiver provides essentials like food, shelter, warmth, cleanliness.
Describe the anal stage (18 months- 3):
The gratification focus involves the anus and the bladder. These organs represent sensual satisfaction.
When can internal conflict arise in the anal stage (18m.- 3)?
When the child begins toilet training
Describe the phallic stage (3-6):
The focus is on exploration of their body with greater interest in genitals.
What complexes can be seen in phallic stage & what are they (3-6)?
Oedipus complex (male) & Electra complex (female): A pseudo(false)-sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite gender.
When does conflict arrive in the phallic stage (3-6)?
When the child realizes they failed to win control over the parents' bond with one another.
What happens to sexual interests in the latent stage (6-puberty)?
It becomes subdued/dormant
What is energy focused on in the latent stage (6-puberty)?
Things like school, hobbies, athletics, and mastering social skills.
Describe what happens in the genital stage (puberty-death):
Awareness of physical changes and sexual feelings at puberty. Becoming less egocentric (self-centered) and more compassionate.
What is there motivation to do in the genital stage (puberty-death):
Find relationships that are emotionally & sexually satisfying.
What does success in the genital stage (puberty-death) lead to?
Healthy and long-lasting future relationships.
What did Erikson develop and what did he emphasize?
8 stages of psycho-social development that emphasized the important of social context- family & environment are major contributions to development.
What are Erikson's 8 psycho-social stages of development and the age each occurs?
trust vs. mistrust (birth-18m,), autonomy vs. shame (18m-3), initiative vs. guilt (3-6), Industry vs. inferiority (6-11), ego identity vs. role confusion (12-18), intimacy vs. isolation (18-40), generativity vs. stagnation (40-60). ego integrity vs. despair (60s-death)
What is the primary goal of Erikson's trust vs. mistrust (birth-18m.) stage?
To learn to trust others
When does trust and mistrust occur in Erikson's trust vs. mistrust (birth-18m.) stage?
Trust: when the caretaker responds to needs timely and in a caring manner. Mistrust: Caretaker fails to meet infants basic needs.
What is the primary goal of Erikson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18m.-3) stage?
The development of self control without the loss of self-esteem
What kind of skills would a toddler develop in Erikson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18m,-3) stage?
Cooperation and self-expression skills
What can happen in Erikson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18m,-3) stage if the goal of self control and not losing self-esteem isn't met?
Defiance, anger, and social problems
What does initiative & guilt mean in Erikson's initiative vs. guilt (3-6) stage?
Initiative: confidently creating a plan & following it to completion. Guilt: fear that actions taken will result in disapproval.
What do industry and inferiority mean in Erikson's industry vs. inferiority (6-11) stage?
Industry is purposeful, meaningful behavior. Inferiority is having a sense of unworthiness or uselessness.
What learning skills does a child focus on in Erikson's industry vs. inferiority (6-11) stage?
Making friends & self-care activities like dressing and bathing.
What can happen if failure occurs in Erikson's industry vs. inferiority (6-11) stage?
Negative social or academic performance and a lack of self-confidence.
Describe Erikson's identity vs. role confusion (12-18) stage:
It involves the desire to fit in and to figure out one's own unique identity.
Self-assessment of what happens in Erikson's identity vs. role confusion (12-18) stage?
sexual identity, talents, and vocational direction.
What is role confusion the result of in Erikson's identity vs. role confusion (12-18) stage?
Role confusion is the result of juggling multiple physical changes, increased responsibility, academic demands, and a need to understand how one fits into the greater picture.
Explain Erikson's intimacy vs. isolation (18-40) stage:
Deals with the ability to take risks by entering the work force, finding a long-term relationship, and maybe becoming a parent.
What can happen if Erikson's intimacy vs isolation (18-40) stage isn't navigated?
Isolation, loneliness, and depression.
What is developed in Erikson's generativity vs. stagnation (40-60) stage?
stability in areas of finance, career, and relationships, as well as a sense that one is contributing something valuable to society.
What can happen in Erikson's generativity vs. stagnation (40-60) stage if the objectives aren't achieved?
Unhappiness with one's status and feeling unimportant
What is being completed in Erikson's ego integrity vs. despair (60s-death) stage?
Important life tasks like child rearing and careers
How might those in Erikson's ego identity vs. despair (60s-death) stage look at their lives?
Reviewing and evaluating how their life was spent.
What does success in Erikson's ego integrity vs. despair (60s-death) stage provide?
Provides a sense of fulfillment
When might failure in Erikson's ego integrity vs. despair (60s-death) emerge?
If someone is dissatisfied with accomplishments, which leads to depression or despair.
What is Erikson's 1st stage of development and its basic virtue?
Trust vs. mistrust (birth-18m): hope
What is Erikson's 2nd stage of development and its basic virtue?
Autonomy vs. doubt and shame (18m.-3): will
What is Erikson's 3rd stage and its basic virtue?
Initiative vs. guilt (3-6): Purpose
What is Erikson's 4th stage and its basic virtue?
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11): Competency
What is Erikson's 5th stage and its basic virtue?
Ego identity vs. role confusion (12-18): Fidelity
What is Erikson's 6th stage & its basic virtue?
Intimacy vs. isolation (18-40): Love
What is Erikson's 7th stage & its basic virtue?
Generativity vs. stagnation (40-60): Care
What is Erikson's 8th stage & its basic virtue?
Ego integrity vs. despiar (60s-death): Wisdom