o elevated, downregulated, activator
Correct; if ATP levels are low, consumed by energy demands, then AMP levels increase. Thus, the level of AMP is elevated compared to normal when energy is abundant.
Correct; if energy levels in the cell are low, glycolysis will be active, not gluconeogenesis. The activity of FBPase-1, part of gluconeogenesis, will therefore be downregulated.
Correct; AMP, which is a signal of low energy levels in the cell, activates glycolysis by activating PFK-1. PFK-1 regulates the committed step for glycolysis and subsequent energy production, the opposite reaction of FBPase-1.
o stimulates, phosphofructokinase-1, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1
o Correct; high levels of fructose-2,6-BP signal an abundance of glucose. Elevated levels stimulate glycolysis.
o Correct; fructose-2,6-BP activates phosphofructokinase-1, the enzyme that controls the committed step of glycolysis. Activation of phosphofructokinase-1 increases glycolysis.
o Correct; fructose-2,6-BP inhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 of the gluconeogenic pathway. (This enzyme catalyzes the reverse reaction of phosphofructokinase-1, the enzyme that fructose-2,6-BP activates.) Inhibiting the fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-1 enzyme downregulates gluconeogenesis.
3rd EditionDavid Klein
7th EditionPaula Yurkanis Bruice
8th EditionPaula Yurkanis Bruice
3rd EditionJanice Gorzynski Smith