Terms in this set (59)
Why do human traits such as height and skin color have many different phenotypes?
Explain why red-green colorblindness is more common in males than in females?
because boys have only 1 x-chromosome adn girls have 2 so the boys have a 50% chance of getting it they just have to have the recessive allele to get it. Girls have to get both recessive alleles.Males are more than females to have a sex-linked triat that is controled by a recessive allele.
what is a pedigree? How are pedigree's used?
pedigree-- a tool that genetics used to trace the inheritance of traits in humans. they are used like a family tree but with genetics (circle, square)
Explain how genetic disorders occur in humans. Give two examples of genetic disorders.
Genetic Disorders are caused by mutations, or changes in a person's DNA. Down Syndome, Cystic Fibrosis, Sickel-Cell Disease,Hemophilia
Describe two tools that doctors used to detect genetic diorders.
karyotypes, pedigree charts, punnet squares
How do the cells of poeple with Down syndrome differ form those of others? How might this differnce arise?
Down Sydrome has an extra copy of chromosome 21.
How does the number of chromosomes copmpare to the usual number of chromosomes?
Name three techniques that people have used to produce organisms with disired traits.
Selevtive breeding, genetic engineering, cloning
Why do scientists want to identify the DNA sequence of every human gene?
So they can get a better understanding how humans develope from a fertilized egg into an adult.
What is genetic engineering? Describe three possible benefits of this technique
genes from one organism are transfered into the DNA of another organism. Genetic Engineering in Bacteria, Genetic Engineering in Other Organisms, Gene Therapy
Explain how a DNA fingerprint is produced. What information can a DNA fingerprint reveal?
it is produced because no tow pit shows you who that person is (if they did a crime or something bad)
A human trait that is controlled by multiple alleles is...
skin color, height
A genetic disorder caused by sex-linked genes is...
Sickel-Cell disease is characterized from...
abnormally shaped red blood cells
Inserting a human gene into a bacterial plasmid is an example of...
DNA fingerprinting is a way to...
Explain how both genes and the enviornment determine how tall a person will be
Explain why traits are controlled by recessive alleles on the X-Chromosome are more common in males than females.
they are more common in males than females because the males only have 1 X-chromosome and the girls have 2 so there is a 50% chance that the boy will get it.
What is sickel-cell disease? How is this disorder inerited?
Sickel-cell disease is a genetic disorder in which the body produces abnoramally thick mucus int he lungs and intestines.
How can amniocentesis be used to detect a disorder such as Down syndrome.
a amniocentesis test tells you about the baby's chromosomes are to see if they have something wrong (they can see if ther eis an extra copy of chromosome 21)
Explain how a horse breeder might use selective breeding to produce horses that have golden coats.
they might take DNA form a horse with golden fur and place it into DNA form another horse so they could have golden fur.
Describe how gene therpay might be used in the furture to treat a person with hemophilia.
They might put DNA of a person without hemophilia into the DNA of the person without hemophilia and then they wont have it anymore
Why can a person be a carrier of a trait caused by a recessive allele but not of a trait caused by a dominate allele?
A person can be a carrier of a recessive trait but not a dominate because the dominate trait masks over the recessive trait
A woman wiht normal color vision had a colorblind daughter. What are the geneotypes and phynotypes of both parents?
genotypes-- HH or Hh
phenotypes-- colorblind or a carrier
If a mother is a carrier of hemophilia, what is the probability that her son will have the trait? Explain your answer
there is a 50% chance that the son will have the trait because if she gives the dominate allele adn the dad gives the recessive than the kid will have the trait.
How could ancient people selectivly breed corn if they didn't know about genes and inheritance?
the could because they could save the seeds from the best plant and plant them and do the process over agian
How are selecvitve breeding and genetic engineering different? How are they similar?
they are different becasue in e.g the DNA is transfered and in s.b is to make the two organisms with the best traits and breed them (natually). theyare similar because the organisms genes are changed in some way
T or F: A WIDOW"S PEAK is a human trait that is controlled by a single gene
T or F: A person who inherits two X chromosomes will be MALE
T or F: A KARYOTYPE is a chart that shows the relationships between the generations of a family
T or F: HYBRIDIZATION is the crossing of two genetically similar organisms.
T or F: A CLONE is an organism that is genetically identical to another organism
three or more forms of a genetic code for a singluar trait are called ______
_____ are alleles passed from parent to childon a sex chromosome
A (n) _________is a personwho has one recessive allele for a traitand one dominate allele for the same trait
A (n) ________is a chart that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
Name one tratment for cysticfybrosis
drugs-- to prevent infections
how does Sickel-cell trait differ from sickel-cell disease
because people with the disease have blood cells that are deformedso their blood cells do not clott adn people with the trait only have some blood cellsthat are deformed which makes them not get effected by the disease.
T or F: a GENETIC DISORDER is an abnormal condidtion that a preson inherits through genes or chromosomes
GENETIC COUNCELING is a procedure in chick cells are examined whether a baby will have some genetic disorders.
a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell is called a GENOTYPE
What are two type of selective breeding and how do they compare?
inbreeding and hybridization because inbreeding crosses two induviduals and hybridization crosses two genetically
What is cloning?
cloning is having exactally the same genes as the organisms form which it was produced
How is bacteria use in genetic engineering?
because to produce what the human genes forms for insulin
How is gene theapry used to treat gene disorders?
gene therpay is used to treat gene disorders by inserting working coipies of a gene directly into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder.
What is the Human Genome Project?
it is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome
the process of selecting a few organisms with disired traits to serve as parentsof th next generation is called...
Crossing two induviduals that have identical or similar sets of allels is called...
crossing two genetically differnt organism is called...
organism that is geneticaly identical to the organism from wich it was produced
Process in which genes from one organism are inserted into the DNA of another organism is called...
inserting working copies of a gene directly into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder is called...
all the DNA in one cell of an organism is called...
the process of selecting a few orginisms with desired traitsto serve as a parent to the next generation
organisms that is genetically identical to the organisms from which it was produced
genes from one organism are transfered into the DNA of another organism
involes inserting working copies of a gene directly into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder
all the DNA in one cell of an organism
what is the differnce between a treatment and a cure for a particular disease?
A treatment controls the symptoms but doesnt eliminate the disease. The cure eliminates the disease and the symptoms that comes with it