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HED 1350 Final Review
Terms in this set (98)
Statement for Professionalism
"It's not the job you do that makes you a professional, it's how you do your job that counts."
Current State of Health Care Employment
Criteria used to define jobs a professional and non professional
Unique, exclusive scope of practice
Minimum standards for education, training, and entry into profession
Accreditation of educational programs
reflect personality characteristics
Distinctive individual qualities of a person, relating to patterns of behavior and attitudes
Enhances your ability to interact effectively with other people
Also called people skills or interpersonal skills
enable you to perform the hands-on, technical duties of your job
Professionals can view "the big picture" and they know where they fit in
Standing back, viewing the entire process of how a patient moves through an organization, and understanding how your role fits into that process
Being present in the situation
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Using reasoning and evidence to make decisions, systematic approach, rational perspective, open mind
Process of Problem Solving
1) Identify the problem
2) Information and examine the evidence
3) Identify options for solutions and pick one
4) Implement solution
5) Evaluate results
6) Make needed adjustments
Developing a Strong Work Ethic
Attitudes and behaviors that support good work performance
Attendance and Punctuality
Attitude and Enthusiasm
Act in accordance with laws, rules, policies, and procedures
Effective Patient Relations
Watch for low literacy
Seek help from bilingual coworkers
Send Clear Message
Use active listening
Use a positive tone
Watch body language
Treat patients and coworkers with respect
Discuss conflicts clamly
Barriers to Communication
Talking too fast
Elements of Communication
Message-Clear message and delivery
Numerous forms- messages, orders, chart, notes
Spellings, grammar, clear/concise writing
Follow guidelines for accepted abbreviations, use of decimals
Hear the message
Maintain a positive attitude
Be aware of special communication such as ASL, Braille, use of service animals
Tips for Conflict Resolution
Treat others with respect
Have complete, accurate information
Keep anger and tone of voice in check
Try to interact in private
Finding good reasons to replace the real reason for behavior in order to maintain self-esteem
Substituting one goal for another
Placing blame for your actions on someone or something else because you can't accept the responsibility
Redirecting feelings toward a constructive objective
The ability to interact effectively with people from various cultures
Formed when groups of people share the same values and norms
A preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience
Prejudice in favor of or against one thing/person/group compared with another; a distortion of truth
Identity with or membership in a particular racial, national, or cultural group and observance of that group's customs, beliefs, and language
the belief in the superiority of one ethic group over others
occurs as members of an ethno-cultural group intergrate into established, larger community (melting pot)
occurs as cultural features are exchanged as groups come into continuous firsthand contact (salad bowl)
Things bias does
impact diagnosis and treatment.
lead to health disparities.
result in unfair and inappropriate care
among coworkers reflects the diversity of their patient population
Gestures and Body language
Personal space and touching
Influence of family structure
Close contact regions
Distant contact regions
System of moral principles-the standard of right vs wrong, subject to interpretation, developed from many influences such as: family, friends, teachers and so on
Core health care values
Treating others with dignity.
Providing service to patients, with an understanding of their unique needs.
Showing performance excellence by taking responsibility for yourself, your team's decisions, and the results.
Showing fairness and justice.
Promoting good for others and contributing to the welfare of clients and those with whom one works.
Avoiding, minimizing or preventing the infliction of harm on a client whether intentionally or not.
Taking responsibility for one's own behavior and self-directedness; freedom to choose without interfering with others' freedom.
Ability to make one's own decisions regarding health care.
Can a 12 year -old girl make a decision about taking birth control pills is a question of what?
Sometimes chemotherapy depletes the immune system, and a patient dies as a result of an opportunistic infection. Are we inflicting harm when we render such devastating intervention, is a question of what?
Do we have the responsibility to render healthcare to those who cannot pay, is a question of what?
Fostering fairness and equity and providing equal treatment to all individuals.
Do we owe the same care, whether compensated or not, to all people including undocumented immigrants, is a question of what?
Making honest promises and honoring commitments to clients and others, and maintaining genuine and consistent interactions.
If a physician promises a patient he will not reveal the patient's diagnosis to the spouse of the patient, can he change his mind if the patient's prognosis changes, is a question of what?
Providing accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness while striving to keep one's promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. Telling the truth
If you observe a surgeon make a mistake in surgery, can you make and keep a promise not to reveal that information to the patient, is a question of what?
Respect for Person
Honoring the dignity, worth, individual differences and rights of all people to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination.
Can we force care upon people who decide they do not want our care, is a question of what?
Respect for persons
Code of Ethics
Exists for every health care professional association. Outlines the principles of conduct for decision making and behavior which are considered ethical by the profession
Ethics in Decision Making
Is it legal?
Is it fair?
What would my conscience say?
4 Topic Model of Ethical Decision Making
Quality of Life
Patient's Problem, History, Diagnosis, Prognosis (Beneficence and Nonmaleficence)
How can treatment benefit the patient and how can harm be avoided is a question of what?
Medical Indications (Beneficence/nonmaleficence)
Is the patient mentally capable and legally competent?
If competent, what is the patient's stated preference for treatment?
Is the patient unwilling or unable to cooperate with treatment?
Is the patient's right to choose being respected to the extent possible in law/ethics is a question of what?
Quality of Life
What are the prospects for return to normal life with and without treatment?
What physical, mental, social deficits will likely result if treatment succeeds?
Are there biases that might prejudice the provider's evaluation of the patient's quality of life?
Are there family or financial issues that could influence treatment?
Are there provider issues that could influence treatment decisions and implementation?
Are there problems with allocation of resources or legal issues that will affect treatment?
Models of Disablement
Views disability as...
* a characteristic of the person
* caused by disease trauma, or other
* requiring intervention provided by health
professionals to correct or compensate
Views disability as...
* a socially created problem - an
unaccommodating environment due to the
the attitudes or features of the social and physical
* requiring a political response
Views disability as...
* a result of biological, personal and social forces,
the interactions of which result in disablement
Interruption of normal cellular processes and the efforts of the organism to regain homeostasis, a normal state.
Can result from infection, trauma, metabolic imbalance, degenerative disease processes, etc.
Examples: cardiomyopathy, osteoarthritis
Loss or abnormality at the level of tissue, organ and body system.
Can occur in the primary location of the underlying pathology, such as muscle weakness around an osteoarthritic joint
Can occur in a secondary location such as cardiopulmonary deconditioning secondary to inactivity due to the osteoarthritis
Represents restriction in performance
Example: decreased ability to walk or to move from sitting to standing
May or may not be related to specific impairments secondary to the pathology
The expression of a physical or mental limitation in a social context.
Represents the difference between a person's intrinsic abilities and the demands of the social/physical environment.
Example: a person with OA who has weakness and joint pain limiting ability to stand and walk may have disability restricting or even eliminating outdoor activities, even employment
Body Functions & Structure
Body Functions = physiological functions of the body systems
Body Structures = anatomical parts of the body
Impairments = problems in body function or structure
Activity = execution of a task or activity
Activity limitation = difficulties executing activities
Participation = involvement in a life situation
Participation restrictions = problems one may experience in involvement in life situations
How community effects Health
Availability of safe places to walk or ride bikes or exercise
Health promotion activities, health educational programs
Availability of mental health services
Access to services to provide testing for early detection of disease
Safety measures within workplaces
Preparation for preventing or dealing with disasters
Individual effects on Health
Smoking or substance abuse
High injury-risk occupations or activities
How does environment effect health
Air and water pollutions
Presence of environmental hazards
Public health measures
Levels of pollens and other potential allergens
Temperature levels - extremes of heat and cold
Food availability and safety
Interpersonal effects on health
Relationships and support systems
Family, friends, co-workers, faith-based communities
Participation in community events
Giving help to others
Access to Healthcare
Health promotion services and activities
Illness prevention services
Early detection services
Diagnosis and treatment services
What is Evidence Based Medicine (EBM)
Requires the integration of the best research evidence with our clinical expertise and our patient's unique values and circumstances.
Steps of EBM
Step 1: Convert the need for information into
an answerable question.
Step 2: Tracking down the best evidence with
which to answer that question
Step 3: Critically appraise the evidence for its
validity, impact, and applicability
Step 4: Integrate critical appraisal with our clinical
Step 5: Evaluate our effectiveness in executing steps 1-4.
Research means a systematic investigation, including research development, testing, and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies, which are drawn from the published literature, and synthesizing summaries and conclusions.
A review which endeavors to consider all published and unpublished material on a specific question. Studies that are judged methodologically sounds are then combined quantitatively and qualitatively depending on their similarity.
Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
A clinical trial involving one or more new treatments and at least one control treatment with specific outcome measures for evaluating the intervention. The treatment may be a drug, device, or procedure. Controls are either placebo or an active treatment that is currently considered the gold standard. If patients are randomized via mathematical techniques then the trial is designated as a randomized controlled trial
In cohort studies, groups of individuals, who are initially free of disease, are classified according to exposure or non-exposure to a risk factor and followed over the time to determine the incidence of an outcome of interest. In a prospective cohort study, the exposure information for the study subjects is collected at the start of the study and the new cases of disease are identified from that point on. In a retrospective cohort study, the exposure status was measured in the past and disease identification has already begun.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of a population at one particular time.
Observations, no numbers
"Why", confirming or refuting cause-effect relationship
Does not involve manipulation of independent variables, can be qualitative, quantitative or mixed
what the researchers want to study - variable under study that the researcher manipulates or measures
the things researchers will measure in order to determine the effect of the independent variable.
the extent to which any changes measured in the dependent variables can be directly attributed to manipulation of the independent variables.
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to the population represented by the participants in the study
Foreground Questions (PICO Question)
Ask for specific knowledge to inform clinical decisions or actions
What does PICO stand for
Patient and/or problem (P)
Intervention (or exposure) (I)
Comparison, if relevant (C)
Clinical outcomes, including time if relevant (O)
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