is fallacy that depends on misleading interpretation of data, statistics or other factual information.
post hoc ergo propter hoc
is a logical fallacy which states, "Since that event followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one.
is committed when someone asks a question that presupposes something that has not been proven or accepted by all the people involved
is an argument in which someone makes a broad claim based on too small of a sample size.
is a variant of the hasty generalization, in which the speaker makes a conclusion from a sample that is not only too small, but not representative of the whole.
fallacy of exclusion
is a final error of hasty generalization, in which the speaker excludes a specific group or person to make her conclusion.
is an argument that posits the inevitability of the worst possible outcome from an initial action.
is a fallacy in which the speaker distorts an opposing point of view before attacking that distorted position.
begging the question
demonstrates a conclusion by means of premises that assume that conclusion
is when a speaker presents a false choice of two options to the audience, hoping to manipulate it into choosing his preferred option.
something unrelated from the topic to throw off the question
occurs when the speaker seeks to claim that one cause is responsible for an outcome, despite the fact that many causes are likely to have contributed to it.
is a generalization that disregards exceptions
fallacy occurs when one tries to rebut a claim by pointing out a similar error or shortcoming present in the person who made the initial claim
is claiming that an argument is invalid because it originated from a tainted or suspect source rather than attacking the quality of the argument.
poisoning the well
is a logical fallacy where adverse information about a target is preemptively presented to an audience, with the intention of discrediting or ridiculing everything that the target person is about to say.
appeal to ignorance
is an argument that relies on the audience's lack of knowledge about a subject.
appeal to fear
is an argument that relies on frightening the audience into an emotional response.
appeal to authority
can be a fallacy in three ways: a) the authority is not an expert in the field being discussed, b) the authority is being misrepresented, or c) analysis of the authority's claim is misleading.
appeal to pity
is a logical fallacy that relies on the speaker appealing to the sympathy of his/her audience.
is an appeal to popular sentiment of the crowd.
refers to attacking the person rather than his/her argument
is a logical fallacy in which the speaker relies on terms of ambiguous meaning
is an logical fallacy in which one argues that an individual member of a group must possess the characteristics of the whole group.
is the reverse of division. In this fallacy, one argues that a group must possess the characteristics of the disparate individuals.
is an argument in which its conclusion does not follow from its premises. In a non sequitur, the conclusion can be either true or false, but the argument is fallacious because the conclusion does not follow from the premise.
the central position or argument of the piece
infromation supporting your claim
connects data back to the claim, underlying values, assumptions
supports your warrant
exception to the claim
claim of cause
A does or does not cause B
claim of fact
a debatable "fact"
claim of definition
defines what or what not a thing is
claim of value
claim of policy
SHOULD or SHOULDNOT do something
true of small group, so true of everyone
compare situation to another
cause and effect warrant
something causes something else
quality of the source, or knowledge of the source
Widely held beliefs or values
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