43 terms

Logic and Toulmin Test

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distorting the facts
is fallacy that depends on misleading interpretation of data, statistics or other
factual information.
post hoc ergo propter hoc
is a logical fallacy which states, "Since that event
followed this one, that event must have been caused by this one.
many questions
is committed when someone asks a question
that presupposes something that has not been proven or
accepted by all the people involved
hasty generalization
is an argument in which someone makes
a broad claim based on too small of a sample size.
unrepresentative sample
is a variant of the hasty
generalization, in which the speaker makes a conclusion from a sample that is not only too small, but
not representative of the whole.
fallacy of exclusion
is a final error of hasty generalization, in which the speaker excludes a specific group or person to make her conclusion.
slippery slope
is an argument that posits the inevitability of the worst possible outcome from an initial
action.
straw person
is a fallacy in which the speaker distorts an opposing point of view before attacking that
distorted position.
begging the question
demonstrates a conclusion by means of premises that assume that conclusion
False Dichotomy
is when a speaker presents a false choice of two options to the audience, hoping to
manipulate it into choosing his preferred option.
red herring
something unrelated from the topic to throw off the question
complex cause
occurs when the speaker seeks to claim that one cause is responsible for an outcome,
despite the fact that many causes are likely to have contributed to it.
accident
is a generalization that disregards exceptions
tu quoque
fallacy occurs when one tries to rebut a claim by pointing out a similar error or shortcoming
present in the person who made the initial claim
genetic fallacy
is claiming that an argument is invalid because it originated from a tainted or suspect
source rather than attacking the quality
of the argument.
poisoning the well
is a logical fallacy
where adverse information about a
target is preemptively presented to an
audience, with the intention of
discrediting or ridiculing everything that
the target person is about to say.
appeal to ignorance
is an argument
that relies on the audience's lack of
knowledge about a subject.
appeal to fear
is an argument that
relies on frightening the audience into
an emotional response.
appeal to authority
can be a fallacy in
three ways: a) the authority is not an
expert in the field being discussed, b)
the authority is being misrepresented,
or c) analysis of the authority's claim is
misleading.
appeal to pity
is a logical fallacy that relies on the speaker appealing to the sympathy of his/her
audience.
ad populum
is an appeal to popular sentiment of the crowd.
ad hominem
refers to attacking the person rather than his/her argument
ambiguous term
is a logical fallacy in which the speaker relies on terms of ambiguous meaning
division
is an logical fallacy in which one argues that an individual member of a group must possess
the characteristics of the whole group.
composition
is the reverse of division. In this fallacy, one argues that a group must possess the
characteristics of the disparate individuals.
non sequiter
is an argument in which its conclusion does not follow from its premises.[1] In a non
sequitur, the conclusion can be either true or false, but the argument is fallacious because the
conclusion does not follow from the premise.
Claim
the central position or argument of the piece
data
infromation supporting your claim
warrants
connects data back to the claim, underlying values, assumptions
backing
supports your warrant
rebuttal
exception to the claim
qualifier
recognize rebuttal
claim of cause
A does or does not cause B
claim of fact
a debatable "fact"
claim of definition
defines what or what not a thing is
claim of value
moral judgement
claim of policy
SHOULD or SHOULDNOT do something
generalization warrant
true of small group, so true of everyone
analogy warrant
compare situation to another
signs warrant
symptoms
cause and effect warrant
something causes something else
authority warrant
quality of the source, or knowledge of the source
Principle Warrant
Widely held beliefs or values
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