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A level: Regeneration EQ1 - How and why do places vary?
Terms in this set (60)
Geographical spaces shaped by individuals and communities over time. Can be an area or location. Can be 'artifical' urban places or modified, as in rural landscapes, moulded by centuries of farming, forestry and mining.
Define Rural-urban Continuum
The unbroken transition from sparsely populated or unpopulated, remote rural places to densely populated, intensively used urban places.
What internal connections help to shape places?
Those between people, employment, services and housing
What external connections help to shape places?
Give examples of place boundaries
Official administrative boundaries such as electoral ward or village boundaries, or more functional, such as travel to work catchment areas
What is 'meaning' as an aspect of place
Meaning reflects how people percieve, engage with and form attachments to particular places.
Why is 'meaning' important to definition of place?
It means that boundaries may be perceptual as well as administrative or functional, distinctive in people's minds and habits
How can places vary in their 'dynamism'?
Smaller or more remote places may change socially and economically more slowly than larger cities, while villages close to cities will be affected by commuting
How does the dynamism of a place link to regeneration?
Places may lose or gain their attractiveness, value or attributes, meaning that there are differential needs for regeneration between places
Changes to places may be driven by processes at which three scales?
lcoal; national; global
What is meant by 'processes'?
These include movements of people, capital, information and resources.
Otherwise known as 'place-making'. Long-term updrading of existing places or more drasric renewal schemes for urban residential, retail, industrial and commercial areas, as well as rural areas
The highest level of decision making in an economy - the top busines executives and officials in government, science, universities, non-profit organisations, healthcare, culture and media.
Name the different sectos of the economy
Primary; Secondary; Tertiary (including Quaternary & Quinary)
Why is the Quinary sector important to 'place'
It is an important aspect of the inreasing 'knowledge economy', creating prosperity in distinctive areas of the UK such as the Cambridge triangle, M4 corridor and London
What is the link between tertiary sector growth and social mobility
It can be argued that social class is being replaced by levels of education and skill. Personal 'mobilty' is now more dependent on access and opportunites for training than place of birth. Accessing higher levels of education at university and apprentichips allows people from traditionally working class and unskilled families to access higher paid and skilled jobs.
Why have places become less 'parochial' (narrow-minded/tied to place of birth)?
University graduates often settle in the place they were trained or where they find a job rather than close to their family home
Which places are likley to become 'winners' in a competitive interlinked world?
Places that embrace growth employment sectors, e.g. Manchester, London, M4 Corridor
Which places are likely to become 'losers' in a competitive interlinked world?
Those that have become marginalised and deprived in opportunity, facilities and standard of living e.g. Cornwall
Give the three main types of worker
1. Employees with contracts 2. Workers (agency staff and volunteers) 3. self-employed (Freelancers, consulants, contractors)
Give 4 controversial aspects of work
1. The gender pay gap 2. Zero-hours contracts (so called Gig-Economy) 3. Illegal work (Black Market) 4. Low paid temporary- seasonal work
Economic activity has direct and indirect impacts on which social factors?
health, life expectancy and levels of education
What is a location quotient?
A mapable ratio which helps show specialisation in any data distribution being studied. LQs over 1 show a concentration of a type of employment locally
What are the different ways in which economic activity can be measured?
Employment data (Location Quotients); Output data (GDP or GVA - Gross value added)
What is 'Gross value added'?
It measures the contribution to the economy of each individual producer, industry or sector. It is used in calculating GDP
Describe the distinctive patterns of certain economic sectors nationally
A North-South split may be identified in the location of manufacturing and financial services.
Why do concentrations of sector types matter?
They can result in social inequalities when associated with declining industries. Concentration can lead to congestion, overcrowding and increase house and land prices in other areas.
What is meant by the 'overheated South'
The region represnets 48% of growth output - quater of the UK's population generates half of the UK's economic growth - concentrated in teh South-East.
Why is economic activity relevant to regeneration?
Places needing regneration may need to either inrease economic specialisation or diversify their economic structure
What is the link between place, deprivation, associated lifestyles and health?
Those working long hours in manyal jobs or exposed to harmful chemicals or pollutants will have a raised risk of poorer health and mortality.
What is the link between income and health?
Level of income can affect people's housing and diets.
Why are some inner city areas described as 'food deserts'?
Cheaper processed foods dominate customer choice - health may suffer as a result of access to food and lifestyle choices
Define 'postcode lottery'
Refers to the uneven distribution of local personal health and health services nationally, especially in mental health. Early diagnosis of cancer and emergency care for the elderly
What is meant by the 'Glasgow effect'?
A term used to describe the impacts of poor health lined to deprivation
What evidence suggests that there is a North-South divide in terms of life-expectacy in the UK?
Males in North London can expect to live 6 years longer than those in Glasgow. Much of the NE and NW have below average life-expectancies of 75 for men and 80 for women. In contrast, the borough of Kensinston and Chelsea has life expectancies of 80 for men and 85 for women.
Which key factors explain patternf of health and longevity?
Social (lifestyle choices and culture); economic (wealth of individuals); locational (access to healthcare)
Describe inequalities in educational provision and outcome in the UK
Outcome is strongly linked to income levels, with children in poverty seeing lower educational achievement.
According to research carried out by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, what percentage of the variation in any individual's performance is due to the quality of the school attended?
Only 14%. More disadvantaged children may feel a lack of control over their learning and may be reluctant to carry on to higher education academic studies
What is meant by the 'intergenerational cycle?
Educational underachievement and poor health may be passes on from parents to their children.
Whicy types of jobs recieve lower pay?
1. Primary sector 2. seasonal 3. unskilled
How do incomes and the cost of living vary regionally?
London and the South East are more expensive to live in than the rest of the UK
Describe the characteristics of the richest one per cent of the UK population
1. Top 10% earn over £53,000 annually 2. UK has most billionaires per capita than any other country 3. Annual bonuses of over a million pounds are common for the elite executives if FTSE 100 companies
Describe the characteristics of the bottom 10% of earners in the UK
1. Weekly wages under £288 2. concentrated in service occuptations 3. 2% labour force are on zero hours contracts
Define 'quality of life'
The level of social and economic wellbeing experienced by individuals or communities measured by various indicators including health, happiness, educational achievement, income and leisure time.
Give four factors leading to inequality
1.Economic inequality (opportunity, type, income) 2.Social inequality (exclusion, marginalisation) 3.Service inequality (health, transport availability and access)4. Environmental inequality (pollution, dereliction, overcrowding, open space).
What is the best stratistical source for data on quality of life in the UK?
Office of National Statistics: produces an annual 'Measuring National Wellbeing: life in the UK Index and well as its Index of Multiple Deprivation
The role a place plays for its community and surroundings.
The physical and human aspects that help distinguish one place from another - location, natural features, layout, land-use, architecture and cultural traits
Why is the landscape of traditional commercial function of settlements changing?
Internet and broadband services as well as changing customer habits e.g. Online shopping, click and collect, online banking all affect traditional high-streets
What role does regeneration play in the commercial function of settlements?
It may seek to counteract the 'cloning' of land uses and encourage specific place identities to attract customers back
Explain how some cities have wider economic functional roles that their immediate administrative boundaries.
Leeds - interdependent with surrounding cities
Give 4 trends that illustrate the distinct demographic characterstics of rural and urban areas
1. Population growth greater in urban areas (9%) than in rural areas (2.5%) 2. Technology and communications have enabled more skilled people to live in rural areas 3. Rural areas have a higher elderly population and lower unemployment rates than urban areas 4. A rise in youth unemployment in more affluent areas due to less graduate employment
The change in the social structure of a place when affluent people move into a location
Give 2 examples of gentrification in the UK
1. Portland Road, Notting Hill - Victorian Slums now sold for multi-million prices 2. Aggressive regeneration of London's Soho
What is 'studentification'
Where students often cluster in certain areas of larger towns or cities. In some areas, students outnumber local residents e.g. 2/3 of 10,00 residents in Headingly, Leeds are studenst, concentrated in 73 streets of terraced housing.
Give four broad factos affecting the changing characteristics of places
1. Physical (location, environment, technology) 2. Accessibility (Access, connections) 3. Historical development (post-production era, competition, consumer trends increased affluence) 4. Role of planning by governments and other stakeholders
Give four key methods geographers use to measure change within places
1. Land-use changes 2. employment trends 3. demographic changes 4. levels of deprivation
What were the main findings from the September 2015 Index of Multiple Deprivation?
1. Pockets of deprivation within less deprived places in ALL English regions 2. Deprivation still concentrated within large urban conurbations and coastal towns
Any type pof physical, social or online linkages between places. Places may keep some of their characteristics or change them as a result.
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