Cell Structure Test Review
Cell Structure Test
Terms in this set (37)
Who coined the term "cells"?
Function of the Cell membrane?
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Function of the Cell Wall?
Give protection and stability to bacterial cells, plant cells and fungi cells
Function of Lysosomes?
Contain digestive enzymes to get rid of items such as worn out cell parts
Function of Centrioles
Aids in cell division by putting out spindle fibers to pull apart chromosomes
Function of Mitochondria?
Powerhouse of the cell - makes ATP for cellular respiration
Function of Chloroplast?
Found in plant cells to do photosynthesis
Function of Ribosomes?
Found embedded in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum to make proteins to be transported
What is the complex carbohydrate found in plant cell walls?
What structures are found in all cells?
Cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA and cytoplasm
Function of the Golgi?
UPS of the cell. Packages items to be sent out of cell or stored for use later
Function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Creation and transport of lipids for use by the cell and cell membrane
What is the cell theory?
All things are made of cells, cell is the basic unit of structure and function, all cells come from preexisting cells
What is another name for a single celled organism?
What do you call a group of cells that work together to live?
What is the phospholipid bilayer?
The structure that makes up most cell membranes. Polar heads on the outside and lipid tails on the inside
What is diffusion?
Movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration.
What is osmosis?
Movement of water molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration.
Does diffusion take cell energy?
No, it does not take cell energy.
What is active transport?
Movement of particles by the cell that require energy. Usually low to high concentration which is against the gradient.
What are the channels that allow facilitated diffusion to occur made of?
What does cholesterol do for the cell membrane?
Gives it stability so that it isn't too moveable.
What is a sodium potassium pump in a cell membrane?
An active transport protein that requires ATP from the cell to move in potassium and move sodium out of the cell
What will happen to an animal cell when it is put into a hypertonic solution?
It will shrivel up because water will move out of the cell. If the solution outside the cell is more concentrated, then it has more solute and less water, so water will move from the higher concentration of water inside the cell to the lower concentration of water outside the cell.
What will happen to an animal cell when it is put into a hypotonic solution?
It will swell because the concentration of solutes inside the cell means a lower concentration of water inside the cell. A lower concentration of solutes outside the cell means a higher concentration of water. Water will move from high to low concentration, so it will move into the cell.
What is dynamic equilibrium?
Movement of particles in solutions. Even though the particle concentration on each side of the membrane is not changing, the particles will still move around.
What is endocytosis?
When the cell takes in large amount of fluid or particles by enclosing it in the cell membrane and taking it in as a vesicle.
What is exocytosis?
When the cell sends things out by use of vesicles.
What is phagocytosis?
A form of endocytosis that engulfs larger particles.
How does the size of a prokaryote cell compare to a eukaryote cell?
The eukaryote cell is much larger. Prokaryote cells are just bacteria.
What is the cytoplasm of the cell?
The fluid part of the cell where many cell reactions take place.
What is the function of the ribosomes?
Synthesize (make) proteins.
What does hydrophilic mean?
Water loving like the polar heads on the cell membrane
What does hydrophobic mean?
Water fearing like the fatty acid tails on the inside of the cell membrane
What is an integral protein?
A protein that goes all the way through the cell membrane such as a protein channel or pore.
What is a peripheral protein?
A protein that is only found on one side of the cell membrane. Think "peripheral vision is your side vision"
What is the function of the nucleus of the cell?
Contains the DNA that controls all actions of the cell