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Chapter 16 and 17 Unit Test
Terms in this set (18)
Know how the beagle voyage provided Darwin with an ideal opportunity for collecting and analyzing data.
He was able to collect many animals from many different places where the ship was anchored, and while he was at sea, he could record his observations.
Know what Darwin learned from the land tortoises of the different Galápagos Islands.
That the shape of their shell corresponds to the different habits.
Be able to explain if Darwin's hypothesis about natural selection and evolution were similar to other scientists of his time and be able to explain.
Darwin's ideas were unique. His hypothesis challenged the fundamental scientific ideas of time.
Know what a vestigial structure is and what it could suggest about a species past relatives.
Vestigial structure is a structure that was once used by a species, but no longer used. It can suggest previous bits of animals previous habitat, lifestyle, etc.
Know was Lamarck's overall belief was about the way a species changed over time.
He believed that all organisms tended toward complexity and perfection.
Know what Darwin discovered with the birds in the Galapagos.
He discovered several species of finches that varied from island to island, which helped him to develop his theory of natural selection.
Know why fossils were important to Darwin's theory of evolution.
He collected many of them on his journey along with living species to help prove his theory of evolution. Fossils provided evidence that life had changed over time.
Be able to explain how you could tell if a trait is a single-gene or polygenic bases on how many phenotypes there are.
2-3 traits that are distinctive- single-gene
Multiple traits that are not distinctive- polygenic
Know if an allele for a trait that has no effect on a species fitness is affected by natural selection and be able to explain.
No. An allele for a trait having no effect on fitness will not be affected by natural selection, because it doesn't affect survival.
Be able to list the 5 conditions necessary to maintain genetic equilibrium in a population.
1. Random mating
2. Large population
3. No migration
4. No mutations
5. No natural selection
Are members of a population necessarily the same species? Explain.
Yes, the term population is defined in terms of species. A population is a collection of individuals of the same species in a given area.
Be able to tell me two main sources of genetic variation and which of them is more common.
Mutations and gene shuffling. Gene shuffling is more common.
Why might genetic drift occur of a small number of individuals colonized a new habitat?
These individuals carry many alleles in different relative frequencies from those of the original population.
What are the 3 mechanisms for reproductive isolation? Which one of these isolates 2 populations of similar frogs with different mating calls?
Behavioral, temporal, and geographical isolation
Essay: know how Darwin's observation of the tortoises on the Galapagos influenced his thinking.
Darwin observed that organisms of the same species had slightly different features depending on where they lived. This caused Darwin to think that organisms adapt to their environments. He noticed that some of the tortoises had somewhat similar structures such as their body shape. Darwin made the assumption that these tortoises all come from a single tortoise species from the mainland.
Essay: know what selective breeding is and why farmers would use it in livestock. Think about what would happen if that livestock was put into the wild.
Selective breeding is the process of humans choosing which trait they want to see in the offspring of an animal. The population that the farmers make are more adapted to being fed and growing quickly. The population would never have hunted or had to survive in the wild before. Therefore, this species would not be as well adapted to other ancestors that have grown in the wild. This means that the population would be lass fit to survive, and would eventually die in the wild.
Essay: explain how shuffling a deck of cards can be a good effect of sexual reproductions effect on the relative frequency of alleles in a population and the possible combinations of alleles.
If each card in the deck is an allele in the population, a hand is representative of a combination of alleles. The exchange of genes during gene shuffling Is similar to the shuffling of a deck. Shuffling leads to different hands, but it doesn't change the relative numbers of specific cards in the deck. Just like how in sexual reproduction we have many genes that are shuffled and swapped. This doesn't affect their frequencies in the gene pool however.
Essay: the Hardy-Weinberg principle gives the conditions needed for the frequency of alleles in a population to remain unchanged. Describe those conditions.
In the gene pool of a large population, the allele frequencies will remain the same. If random mating occurs in the population, every individual has a chance to reproduce and the frequencies stay unchanged. If there is no migration in or out, the frequencies will remain the same. Of natural selection doesn't occur, the frequencies will remain the same. If there are no mutations, then the frequencies will remain the same.
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