22 terms

O'Neill APES CH17 2018

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Terms in this set (...)

risk
the probability of suffering harm from a hazard that can cause injury, disease, death, economic loss, or damage
risk assessment
the process of using statistical methods to estimate how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health or to the environment
risk management
compare the risk to other risks, decide how much to reduce the risk, and say how much money should be spent
emergent diseases
newly discovered diseases or ones that were absent in human populations for at least 20 years
toxic chemical
chemical that can cause temporary or permanent harm or death to humans and animals
carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens
3 types of toxins
toxicity
a measure of the harmfulness of a substance- its ability to cause injury, illness, or death to a organism
dose
the amount of a harmful chemical that a person has ingested inhaled or absorbed through the skin
response
the damage to health resulting from exposure to a chemical
LD50
the dose that can kill 50% of a test population within a specified time period
LD100
lethal dose for 100% of population (100% lethality)
Non-transmissible Disease
Caused by something other than a living organism. Does not spread from person to person. May be genetic or may be associated with environmental exposure or lifestyle choices. (cancer, asthma, diabetes)
Transmissible Disease (aka infectious disease)
Can be transmitted from person to person; caused by pathogen (bacteria, parasite, virus)
Viruses (treatment)
Not affected by antibiotics.
Malaria
Caused by parasite carried by mosquitoes, affects tropical areas, reaching new areas due to global warming, kills a very large number of people, mosquito nets help lower infection rate
Cholera
Bacterial infection that comes from unclean drinking water contaminated with human waste.
Carcinogen
Causes or promotes cancer
Mutagens
Chemicals or radiation that cause changes in the DNA, may cause birth defects if egg/sperm are affected
Teratogens
Chemicals that cause birth defects because of exposure during pregnancy.
Bioaccumulation
occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than it can be eliminated (metabolized or excreted); some pollutants accumulate over an entire lifetime because there is virtually zero elimination (mercury, DDT); occurs WITHIN a trophic level
Biomagnification
the increasing concentration of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels in a food chain
Diseases that kill the most people
1. Influenza
2. HIV/AIDS
3. Diarrheal diseases