Final Exam Study Guide for US History Pre-1877

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Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois,
Land west of the Missouri to be organized into two territories
Kansas west of Missouri; Nebraska west of Iowa and Minnesota
Territorial legislatures would decide on slavery
Missouri Compromise explicitly repealed
"Know Nothing" Party
Emergence of the American Party
Supported multifaceted anti-immigrant/nativist agenda
Appealed to Northern Whigs who had not already become Republicans
Scored big gains in elections in 1854
"Border ruffians"
from Missouri crossed into Kansas to vote illegally for slave government
Majority favored free soil and opposed slavery
Popular sovereignty
People's rule, pushed by Stephen Douglas
Lecompton Constitution
Effort to legitimize pro-slavery government and prepare Kansas for entry into Union as a slave state
Maneuvered to keep antislave settlers from voting to guarantee a constitution that included slavery
Buchanan administration recognized pro-slavery constitution, recommended statehood for Kansas
Generated controversy in Congress, which eventually defeated statehood measure
Issue split Democratic Party and discredited Stephen Douglas with party
Aided in election of a Republican president in 1860
Free Labor Ideology
Romanticized images of happy, well-fed slaves enjoying their work picking cotton were
common in pro-slavery literature. Such images were often contrasted with the supposed harshness of life in northern tenement districts
John Brown
Attempt to seize federal arsenal and foment a slave uprising
Raid subdued quickly
Generated fears of slave insurrection in South
Northerners saw this guy as martyr to antislavery cause
Helped to contribute to unraveling of Union
Jefferson Davis
Southern Democrat was leading fight in Congress about free-soil majority territories and sided with South
Fort Sumter Issue
Confederates demanded federal withdrawal from fort in Charleston Harbor
Federal forces hung on, but ran short on supplies
Reached crisis point when Lincoln was inaugurated in March 1861
Decided to send unarmed supply ships to fort
Confederacy attacked fort before supplies could arrive
Started what became the Civil War in April 1861
West Virginia
created in 1863
Antislave in orientation, loyal to Union
"Contrabands"
Military designation of slaves as "Contraband of War" in spring of 1861
Legislation authorized seizure of all enemy property in late summer of 1861
Compensated emancipation
proposed by Lincoln; urged border-state Congressmen to accept the offer
Border-state congressmen reject compensated emancipation proposal
Copperheads
found ready audience for criticism
Northern faction of the Democratic party
Increased calls for ending the war and seeking peace
Had powerful adverse effect on Northern morale
Richmond Bread Riot
the economic problems of the
Confederacy and the suffering of poor civilians in overcrowded cities, this was about how
in Richmond involved 1,000 women and boys who broke
into shops to take food and other goods on April 2, 1863.
Twenty Negro Law
The law specifically exempted from Confederate military service one white man for every twenty slaves owned on a Confederate plantation, or for two or more plantations within five miles of each other that collectively had twenty or more slaves.
Sod House
This was made by Homesteaders, they were small and functioned as a shelter
Kansas A&M College
...
Ten Percent Plan
which specified that a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters (from the voter rolls for the election of 1860) swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.
"Black Codes"
laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
Freedman's Bureau
Oversaw relations between former slaves and owners
Viewed with hostility by some Southern whites
In negotiating labor contracts, the bureau tried to establish minimum wages
Because of lack of money in South, many contracts called for share wages
Sharecropping
Some black families worked a specific piece of land in return for a share of a crop produced on it
"Carpetbaggers"
were Union army officers who stayed on after the war as Freedmen's Bureau agents, teachers in black schools, business investors, and pioneers of a new political order
Ku Klux Klan
Aim was to destroy the Republican party and exert social control over the black population
Congress resorted to federal intervention to stabilize situation in the South
Made interference with voting rights a federal offense
Made deprivation of civil or political rights a felony
Suspension of habeas corpus and use of troops to stop resistance to federal law
Succeeded in breaking back of this group before Election of 1872
Blance Bruce
African American Member of Congress during Reconstruction
Mississippi Election of 1875
Democrats took control of this state in 1875
this state's Plan involved intimidation of black voters after this happened
Compromise of 1877
Hayes declared winner
End of "bayonet" rule in the South
Other concessions to South (i.e., federal appropriations to rebuild levees and federal aid for a southern transcontinental railroad)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Black Hills
Invasions
Little Big Horn, 1876, its a peace thing, but its the second one, but the number isn't in the name
Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army.
Nez Perce War (1877)
In 1877, President Ulysses S. Grant opened the this indian group's homeland, the beautiful Wallowa Valley of Eastern Oregon, to white settlement.
In addition, the U.S. government demanded that all roaming (blank) bands promptly move onto the Lapwai reservation in present-day Idaho. Chief Joseph was selected to meet and discuss the demand with Brigadier General Oliver O. Howard. There was little discussion; Howard delivered a 30-day ultimatum with a threat to comply, or else. The bands reluctantly began to move away.
Most of the (blank) peacefully moved to a reservation.
Growing tension spurred a group of young (blank) warriors to stage unauthorized, murderous raids whose targets were settlers along the Salmon River. The elders first hid the firebrands, but Chief Joseph knew that retribution would shortly follow and he reluctantly prepared for war
A hurriedly assembled U.S. battalion marched on the main (blank) camp. On June 17, a force of 300 Indians beat off the soldiers at White Bird Canyon in Idaho. However, the (blank) fled, knowing they could not engage Howard's full army.
Geronimo
fought against both Mexican and United States troops and became famous for his daring exploits and numerous escapes from capture. His 38 men, women and children evaded 5000 U.S. troops (one fourth of the army at the time) and the Mexican army for a year.
Columbian Exchange
The "trade" between North America, Europe, and Africa of different things, North America giving money, a whole new assortment of foods, and syphillis, and Europe giving a few animals, a bunch of diseases, and plants with slaves from Africa
Roanoke Venture
Sir Walter Ralegh adventure of making a permanent colony in this place in the late 1500s, Powhatan tribe probably wiped them out
Pocahontas
This person and John Rolfe marry to help the Jamestown settlement when there were all sorts of problems with survival and indians
Indentured Servants
Types of servants where you would work for several years while being "taken care of" (given basic necessities) and then getting your own plot of land and being free after a few years
Roger WIlliams
Dissenter in colonies who favored a separation of Church and state in Rhode Island
Anne Hutchison
Woman who spoke against the Anglican church and tried to poke holes in their beliefs before being pushed away from them by claiming to be getting her own messages from God
Salem Witch Trials
Spring and Summer of 1692, Accusations of 150 individuals who are all thought to be witches, where if you just confessed you were purified, but if you didn't you were killed
Mose
The fort in florida where black people could escape to and they would be free, it was proposed by the spanish
Proclamation of 1763
thing to regulate expansion beyond Appalachians, encouraged settlement elsewhere, designed to keep peace with indians
Crispus Attucks
The first person killed in the Boston Massacre, black guy
Tea Act (1773)
Britain put a tax on Tea
Dunmore's Proclamation
Offered freedom for any slaves that would join the british army
Virginia's Statute for Religious Freedoms (1786)
Paved way for religious toleration through country, increasing acceptance of Jews and Catholics in Virginia
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Organized settlements and land speculation already under way, territories divided and all of that
Connecticut Compromise
Proportional representation in one house, equal in the other, electoral college, three-fifths compromise, and ratification through special convention
Judiciary Act of 1879
Established national court system
Alexander Hamilton
Reported on Public Credit, created Bank of U.S., had federal excise taxes to fund national debt, favored speculators, economic interests, and political elites, had jefferson agaisnt him, was part of standing army against france in 1800
Corps of Discovery
came to be known as the Lewis and Clark expedition. The goal of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to establish good relations with the Native Americans and try to find a northwest passage across the United States.
Sacagaewa
She was kidnapped by a war party of the Hidatsa Indians when she was twelve years old, became the property of French-Canadian fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau, born no later than 1767 and well over two decades her senior. used her to communicate with shoshone so relations would be better
War Hawks
People who will engage in war easily, First war waged under the new Constitution, Detailed list of British crimes against America, Federalists opposed to war
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
Foreign policy success of JQ Adams as secretary of state for Monroe's Administration, got us florida
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Maine admitted as free state (carved out of Massachusetts), Missouri admitted as slave state, Slavery outlawed from Missouri's southern border northward (line at 36°30′ would permit slavery only to its south; Missouri would stand as the exception because it lay north of the line)
Nullification Crisis
Jackson refused to accept this, Called the Force Bill to authorize federal military action against South Carolina, Henry Clay engineered political compromise: Tariff of 1833, a this of Force Bill
Market Revolution
The transformation of the United States, particularly in the North, between 1815 and 1850 from a largely subsistence economy to a market society in which farmers and other business owners produced surplus goods to sell to growing regional, national, and international markets.
"Benevolent Empire"
A broad ranging campaign of moral & institutional reform inspired by Evangelical Christian ideals & created by middle class men & women. In the 1820s this became a seminal concept in American spiritual thinking during the Second Great Awakening
Seneca Falls Convention
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, Central issue was winning the right to vote
Manifest Destiny
First coined by newspaper editor, John O'Sullivan in 1845, expansionist ideology
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Question of slavery made peace treaty with Mexico difficult, The United States gained California, New Mexico, and favorable Texas boundary in 1848, Paid Mexico $15 million in exchange
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
After the war with Mexico, Americans wanted to guarantee that any southern railroad to California would be built completely on American soil, US paid $10 million for the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico, The existing boundary between the U.S. and Mexico was fixed.
Fugitive Slave Law
Ongoing debates between North and South over fugitive slaves and the organization of territory acquired from Mexico, Senator Henry Clay sought to settle several outstanding questions, Paired proposals to unite North and South, California as free state; rest of Mexican cession without restrictions on slavery, Texas boundary settlement to favor New Mexico; assumption of Texas debt, Abolished slave trade in District of Columbia; protected slavery there unless Maryland and Virginia consented to abolition, Congress affirmed it had no jurisdiction over interstate slave trade, strong this law
We willingly entered into a willing compact with the Declaration of Independence, but the Union has not lived up to the soverign state interest of the soiuthern states
SA: 1. Name the components of Southern thinking about the nature of the Union that allowed them to justify secession.
1. Homestead Act - Provided 160 acres to white settlers, live there for 5 years, build a house, make improvements, and it is yours
2. Morrill Land-Grant College Act - Land dedicated to each state to provide agriculture and mechanical education to the masses
3. Pacific Railroad Act - Provides for the Transcontinental Railroad and allowed Telegraph lines to line the railroads for transportation and communication system.
SA: 2. List and explain the 3 pieces of legislation passed by the 37th Congress in 1862 that became the "blueprint for modern America."
Wartime, Presidential, Congressional
SA: 3. Name the 3 phases of Reconstruction in the South.
1.Goal to put all Native Americans onto reservations
2. Divided reservations among religious denominations for them to send missionaries
3. Created the Board of Indian Commissioners
4. Congress terminates treaty-making with Indian tribes:
4. What were the components of Grant's "Peace Policy" of 1871?
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