In 1877, President Ulysses S. Grant opened the this indian group's homeland, the beautiful Wallowa Valley of Eastern Oregon, to white settlement.
In addition, the U.S. government demanded that all roaming (blank) bands promptly move onto the Lapwai reservation in present-day Idaho. Chief Joseph was selected to meet and discuss the demand with Brigadier General Oliver O. Howard. There was little discussion; Howard delivered a 30-day ultimatum with a threat to comply, or else. The bands reluctantly began to move away.
Most of the (blank) peacefully moved to a reservation.
Growing tension spurred a group of young (blank) warriors to stage unauthorized, murderous raids whose targets were settlers along the Salmon River. The elders first hid the firebrands, but Chief Joseph knew that retribution would shortly follow and he reluctantly prepared for war
A hurriedly assembled U.S. battalion marched on the main (blank) camp. On June 17, a force of 300 Indians beat off the soldiers at White Bird Canyon in Idaho. However, the (blank) fled, knowing they could not engage Howard's full army.