1. Child and family welfare practice and policy are guided by certain overarching principles. A major principle of the field of child welfare and family services is that a safe and permanent home is the best
environment for children. Children are dependent, immature individuals who require care, protection,and guidance to survive and flourish.
2. concerns child safety. Children need to grow up in environments free of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. They need to have the basic necessities of food, clothing, and shelter, and personal relationships with loving, attentive caregivers.
3. major principle of family and child services is that they should work to strengthen and support family functioning.
4. major principle of family and child services is that placement decisions should respect the children's needs for family continuity. If children need to be separated from families, the focus
should be on maintaining continuity of the children's emotional attachments to family
1.Preventive and supportive services are available to families to support and
strengthen family life, to promote the healthy development of children and adults, to reduce risks to children, and to help families maintain connections with community institutions such as schools, welfare, and the workplace. Depending on the type of service offered, these services may be called therapeutic, preventive, or supportive.
2.Protective services are for families who have fallen below a minimally sufficient
level of childrearing and whose children therefore suffer from abuse or neglect.
Services include investigation of the family's situation and help in improving
family life so that the children can remain safely in the home.
3. Foster care services are for families who temporarily cannot maintain a minimally sufficient childrearing environment in the home. While children are in foster care, the focus is on helping parents to improve their life situation so that children can be returned to them safely. Children may be placed with relatives, called "kinship care," in a foster family, in a group home, or in a children's institution. They are helped to cope with the separation and to adjust to their new living situation. Arranging visitation to help family members maintain connection with one another and planning for reunification as early as possible are important aspects of foster care services. 4. Adoption services are available to children in need of a new, permanent family because their biological parents have relinquished them for adoption or had their parental rights permanently terminated in court. Helping the child (if older) grieve for the loss of his or her biological family and adjust to the new family are key adoption services. Adoption services provide support to the adoptive family and the biological family.
places services in a continuum of increasing intensity, reflecting the
needs of the family Services needed by all families, such as schools, health
care, and recreational facilities, are at the base of the pyramid, reflecting their status as widely available services. Families needing some extra support from time to time, often during family
transitions such as divorce, birth, or death, or during other periods of stress, may need such services as a home visitor or parent education programs. Other families may also need a more specialized level of assistance, for such serious threats to family functioning as substance abuse, the physical or intellectual impairment of family members, or domestic violence.
The Children's Defense Fund (2005,
has pinpointed the large gaps in service for America's poor families. "Only one out of seven children eligible for the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG), the federal child care assistance program, receives assistance. In about one-third of the states, a family of three earning $25,000 a year would not qualify for child care assistance. Twenty states had either waiting lists or frozen intake in 2005, with well over 450,000 children on these lists." Shortages also
exist in the provision of Head Start programs. "More than three million children eligible for Head Start and Early Head Start were not served in 2004 . . . in 2003, about half of all eligible preschool-age children were served by Head Start . . . [and] less than three percent of eligible in-
fants and toddlers were served by Early Head Start".With or without help from federal programs, parents very often find that they must work and must find some arrangement for their children. They can ill-afford the child care that they need to have, and the care of their children
may be substandard.