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How many bones make up the cranium?


What do the bones of the cranium enclose?

Only the brain

What bones make up the cranium?

1 Frontal bone, 2 Parietal bones, 2 Temporal bones, 1 Occipital bone, 1 Sphenoid bone, and 1 Ethmoid bone

What does the frontal bone make up?

The forehead and roof of orbitals

What are the names of the frontal bones?

The Supraorbital foramen, Lacrimal fossa, and the supraorbital margin

What is the job of the lacrimal fossa and what does it house?

It lubricates the surface of the eye and houses the tear ducts

What is the supraorbital margin an indication of and what does it form?

It marks the end of the frontal bone and forms the top of the eye sockets

What surfaces are the parietal bones comprised of?

Superior and Lateral

Name the componants of the parietal bones.

The Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, Superior line and Inferior line

Where does the sagittal suture run to?

the midline runs from the lambdoidal suture to the coronal suture

What does the anterior coronal suture separate?

the frontal bone from the parietal bones

What is the job of the superior and temporal lines?

To attach the temporalis muscles

What are the temporalis muscles responsible for?

For closing the mouth

What do the temporal bones contribute to?

The lateral and inferior walls, zygomatic arches of the cheek, and are the only articulation with mandible

What do the temporal bones provide protection for?

The sensory organs of the inner ear

What are the components of the temporal bone?

The Squamosal suture, Zygomatic process of temporal bone, Mandibular fossa, External auditory meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, and Internal acoustic foramen

What is the squamosal suture a boundary for?

The temporal and parietal bones

What does the zygomatic process of the temporal bone connect to and what does it form?

The temporal process of the zygomatic bone which form the zygomatic bone or "cheek bone"

What is job of the madibular fossa?

articulation of the mandible

What does the styloid process provide attachment for?

The ligaments that support the the hyoid bone and muscles for the tongue, pharynx, and larynx

What does the mastoid process provide attachment for?

The muscles that attach the head

What vein passes through the jugular foramen?

The Jugular vein

What major artery penetrates the entrance of the carotid canal?

The Internal carotid artery

Whats the function of the internal acoustic foramen?

It carries blood vessels and nerves to the inner ear

What does the occipital bone contribute to on the cranium?

The posterior, lateral, and superior surfaces

What are the components of the occipital region?

The Lambdoidal suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, and external occipital protuberance

What does the lambdoidal suture separate?

the occipital bone from the parietal bones

What does the foramen magnum connect?

The cranial cavity to the spinal cavity

What does the occipital condyles articulate with?

The first vertebrate (Atlas)

What is the external occipital protuberance?

its a midline bump located at the end of the external occipital crest

Where is the external occipital crest located?

its a posterior extension from the foramen magnum

What are the external occipital crest and external occipital protuberance attachment sites for?

The muscles for stabilization of the head

What is the sphenoid bone responsible for articulation of?

Every other cranial bone

What is the function of the sphenoid?

It acts as a bridge for uniting the facial and cranial bones

What are the components in the sphenoid region?

The Greater wings, Sella turcica, Hypohyseal fossa, Lesser wings, Optic foramen, and Foramen ovale

Where are the cranial wings located?

Theyre extended across the cranial vault

What is the sella turcica?

Its a bony enclosure of the pituitary gland

What is the hypohyseal fossa?

Its a depression that houses the pituitary gland?

What is the optic foramen?

Its a passageway for the optic nerve

Whats the job of the foramen ovale?

to serve as a passageway for blood vessels

What parts of the cranium does the ethmoid bone make up?

A part of the orbital wall, anteromedial floor of the cranium, roof of the nasal cavity, and part of the nasal septum

What are the components of the ethmoid region?

The Crista galli, cribiform complex, perpendicular plate, and lateral masses

What is the crista galli?

its a prominent ridge that attaches to a membrane that stabilizes the brains position

Where is the location of the cribiform complex (cribiform plate)?

Its the superior surface of the ethmoid bone that is perforated by the cribiform foramina.

What does the cribiform complex allow?

A passageway to olefactory nerves

What ethmoidal bone forms the nasal septum?

The perpendicular plate

What do the lateral masses contain?

The superior and middle nasal concha

What is the function of the lateral masses?

The slowing of air movement, warming, humidification, and dust removal

What are the components of the facial bones?

1 mandible, 2 maxillae, 2 palatine bones, 2 zygomatic bones, 2 lacrimal bones, 2 nasal bones, 1 vomer, and nasal conchae

What does the mandible form?

The lower jaw, body, angle, and ramus

What are the components of the mandible?

The Mandibular condyle, Mandibular notch, Coronoid process, Mental foramen, Temperomandibular joint (TMJ), and Alveolar part

What does the mandibular condyle articulate with?

The Temporal bone

Whats the name of the depression that lies between the condylar and coronoid process?

The Mandibular notch

What muscle is inserted in the coronoid process?

The Temporalis muscle

Where are the mental foramina located?

The Chin or Mentis

What is the job of the nerves that pass through the mental foramina?

They carry information from the lips and chin back to the brain

What is the temperomandibular joint?

Its a very moveable component of the facial bones that can sometimes be dislocated

What is the name of a part of the facial bones thats a thickened area which contains the alveoli and roots of the teeth?

The Alveolar part (margin)

Which of the facial bones are the largest?

The Maxillae

What doe the maxillae form?

The Upper jaw

What do the maxillae articulate with?

all the other facial bones except the mandible

What are the palatine processes?

The Bony roof of the mouth

What is the job of the orbital rim?

It Provides protection for the eye

What is the job of the infra-orbital foramen?

It Provides a means of exit for sensory nerves in the face

What are the L-Shaped facial bones that articulate with the maxillae to complete the posterior portion of the bony palate?

The Palatine bones

What general area of the facial bones does the zygomatic bones form?

The lateral rim of the orbit

What are the components of the zygomatic bone?

The Temporal process of zygomatic bone and Center piece of zygomatic arch

What does the temporal process of the zygomatic bone aid in?

The Formation of the cheek

Where are the lacrimal bones located?

The medial portion of the orbit

What are the smallest bones in the skull?

The Lacrimal bones

What do the lacrimal bones articulate with?

The Frontal bone, Maxilla, and Ethmoid bone

The lacrimal bone and maxilla for to make the:

The Nasolacrimal Canal

What does the nasolacrimal canal enclose?

The tear duct

What does the nasolacrimal canal pass toward?

The nasal cavity

what doe the nasal bones articulate with?

The Frontal bone

Where is the vomer?

On the inferior portion of the nasal septum

What does the vomer articulate with?

Both the maxillae and palatine bones along the midline

Where are the superior and middle nasal conchae located?

On lateral masses of the ethmoid bone

Other than the superior and middle nasal conchae, what general location are the other nasal conchae located?


How many bones does the skull contain?


What two categories of bones is the skull comprised of?

The cranium, facial bones, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone, and orbit

Whats the name for air spaces connected to the nasal cavities that act as extensions of the nasal cavity?

The paranasal sinuses

Name the four kinds of paranasal sinuses.

The frontal and sphenoidal sinuses, the ethmoidal air cells, and the maxillary sinuses

What is the hyoid bone suspended by?

The stylohyoid ligament

What bones does the hyoid bone articulate with?

None, its not in any direct contact with any other bone

What is the hyoid bone the base of?

Several muscles involved in the movement of the tongue and larynx

Since all of the bones in the fetal skull havent fused yet, what are the embryonic bones connected by?

By fibrous connective tissue called fontanels

Why is it so important for a fetal skull to not be fused together at birth?

It allows for rapid growth of the brain and allows the skull to be distorted during delivery without being damaged

What are the frontal fontanels intersections for?

The frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures

What are the occipital fontanels interesection for?

The lambdoid and sagittal sutures

What is the sphenoid fontanel between?

The squamous and coronal sutures

What is the mastoid fontanel between?

The squamous and lambdoid sutures

What is another name for the frontal fontanels?

The anterior fontanels

What is another name for the Occipital fontanels?

The posterior fontanels

What is another name for the sphenoid fontanels?

The anterolateral fontanels

What is another name for the mastoid fontanels?

The posterolateral fontanels

How many bones are in the vertebral column?


Whats the function of the vertebral column?

To bear the bodies weight and protect the spinal cord

Why is it important for the spine to be curved?

For bringing the weight closer to the bodies axis

Name the four types of spinal curves.

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral

What two spinal curves are categorized as primary or accomodation curvatures?

The thoracic and lumbar curves

What spinal curvatures are categorized as secondary or compensation curvatures?

The lumbar and cervical curves

What part of the vertebra is the anterior portion responsible for bearing the weight and articulates with neighbors separated by intervertebral discs?

The body

What does the vertebral arch form?

The lateral and posterior margins of the vertebral foramen

What does the vertebral arch surround?

The spinal cord

Name the components of the vertebral foramen.

the pedicles, laminae, and body

On the vertebral foramen what are the pedicles?

The walls

On the vertebral foramen what are the laminae?

The roof

on the vertebral foramen what are the bodys?

The floor

Name the components of a typical vertebra.

The body, vertebral foramen, intervertebral foramen, transverse process, spinous process, and superior and inferior articular surfaces

What do the intervertebral foramen provide?

A passageway for nerves

Where is the transverse process?

It extends from the pedicle/lamina junction

What is the function of the transverse process?

It provides attachement for muscles and articulates with the ribs

Where does the spinous process project?


Where do the superior and inferior articular surfaces arise from?

The pedicle/lamina junction

What are intervertebral discs comprised of?

FIbrous cartilage and elastic connective tissue ligaments

How many cervical vertebrae are there?


What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?


What is the name of the second cervical vertebra?


What important component is found in the second cervical vertebra?

The odontoid process

What does the odontoid process allow?

Rotation of the head

What vertebrae are responsible for articulation of the rib?

The thoracic vertebrae

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?


How many lumbar vertebrae are there?


What is the sacrum comprised of?

5 fused vertebrae

How old is a person by the time the bones in the sacrum have fused?


What are the three main components of the sacrum?

The superior articular surface, transverse lines of fusion, and the sacral foramina

What is the coccyx comprised of?

3 to 5 fused vertebrae

What is the name of the flat bone that forms in the anterior midline of the thoracic wall?

The sternum

What are the components of the sternum?

The manubrium, body, and xyphoid process

Where is the jugular notch located?

At the superior end of the manubrium

What happens to the sternum as you move inferiorly?

the body tapers off

What is formed as the body of the sternum tapers off?

The sternal angle

what are the main components of the ribs?

The head, tubercle, angle, and body

What is the body of the ribs comprised of?

The superior surface and the costal groove

What is the angle of the ribs an indication of?

The site where the tubular body or shaft, begins curving towards the sternum

How does the tubercle project?


What does the inferior portion of the tubercle on the ribs contain?

An articular facet that contacts the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra

What is another name of the body of a rib?

The shaft

What is another name for the head of the ribs?

The capitulum

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