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What bones make up the cranium?
1 Frontal bone, 2 Parietal bones, 2 Temporal bones, 1 Occipital bone, 1 Sphenoid bone, and 1 Ethmoid bone
What are the names of the frontal bones?
The Supraorbital foramen, Lacrimal fossa, and the supraorbital margin
What is the job of the lacrimal fossa and what does it house?
It lubricates the surface of the eye and houses the tear ducts
What is the supraorbital margin an indication of and what does it form?
It marks the end of the frontal bone and forms the top of the eye sockets
Name the componants of the parietal bones.
The Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, Superior line and Inferior line
Where does the sagittal suture run to?
the midline runs from the lambdoidal suture to the coronal suture
What do the temporal bones contribute to?
The lateral and inferior walls, zygomatic arches of the cheek, and are the only articulation with mandible
What are the components of the temporal bone?
The Squamosal suture, Zygomatic process of temporal bone, Mandibular fossa, External auditory meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, and Internal acoustic foramen
What does the zygomatic process of the temporal bone connect to and what does it form?
The temporal process of the zygomatic bone which form the zygomatic bone or "cheek bone"
What does the styloid process provide attachment for?
The ligaments that support the the hyoid bone and muscles for the tongue, pharynx, and larynx
Whats the function of the internal acoustic foramen?
It carries blood vessels and nerves to the inner ear
What does the occipital bone contribute to on the cranium?
The posterior, lateral, and superior surfaces
What are the components of the occipital region?
The Lambdoidal suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, and external occipital protuberance
What is the external occipital protuberance?
its a midline bump located at the end of the external occipital crest
What are the external occipital crest and external occipital protuberance attachment sites for?
The muscles for stabilization of the head
What are the components in the sphenoid region?
The Greater wings, Sella turcica, Hypohyseal fossa, Lesser wings, Optic foramen, and Foramen ovale
What parts of the cranium does the ethmoid bone make up?
A part of the orbital wall, anteromedial floor of the cranium, roof of the nasal cavity, and part of the nasal septum
What are the components of the ethmoid region?
The Crista galli, cribiform complex, perpendicular plate, and lateral masses
What is the crista galli?
its a prominent ridge that attaches to a membrane that stabilizes the brains position
Where is the location of the cribiform complex (cribiform plate)?
Its the superior surface of the ethmoid bone that is perforated by the cribiform foramina.
What is the function of the lateral masses?
The slowing of air movement, warming, humidification, and dust removal
What are the components of the facial bones?
1 mandible, 2 maxillae, 2 palatine bones, 2 zygomatic bones, 2 lacrimal bones, 2 nasal bones, 1 vomer, and nasal conchae
What are the components of the mandible?
The Mandibular condyle, Mandibular notch, Coronoid process, Mental foramen, Temperomandibular joint (TMJ), and Alveolar part
Whats the name of the depression that lies between the condylar and coronoid process?
The Mandibular notch
What is the job of the nerves that pass through the mental foramina?
They carry information from the lips and chin back to the brain
What is the temperomandibular joint?
Its a very moveable component of the facial bones that can sometimes be dislocated
What is the name of a part of the facial bones thats a thickened area which contains the alveoli and roots of the teeth?
The Alveolar part (margin)
What is the job of the infra-orbital foramen?
It Provides a means of exit for sensory nerves in the face
What are the L-Shaped facial bones that articulate with the maxillae to complete the posterior portion of the bony palate?
The Palatine bones
What are the components of the zygomatic bone?
The Temporal process of zygomatic bone and Center piece of zygomatic arch
Other than the superior and middle nasal conchae, what general location are the other nasal conchae located?
What two categories of bones is the skull comprised of?
The cranium, facial bones, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone, and orbit
Whats the name for air spaces connected to the nasal cavities that act as extensions of the nasal cavity?
The paranasal sinuses
Name the four kinds of paranasal sinuses.
The frontal and sphenoidal sinuses, the ethmoidal air cells, and the maxillary sinuses
What bones does the hyoid bone articulate with?
None, its not in any direct contact with any other bone
What is the hyoid bone the base of?
Several muscles involved in the movement of the tongue and larynx
Since all of the bones in the fetal skull havent fused yet, what are the embryonic bones connected by?
By fibrous connective tissue called fontanels
Why is it so important for a fetal skull to not be fused together at birth?
It allows for rapid growth of the brain and allows the skull to be distorted during delivery without being damaged
What two spinal curves are categorized as primary or accomodation curvatures?
The thoracic and lumbar curves
What spinal curvatures are categorized as secondary or compensation curvatures?
The lumbar and cervical curves
What part of the vertebra is the anterior portion responsible for bearing the weight and articulates with neighbors separated by intervertebral discs?
Name the components of a typical vertebra.
The body, vertebral foramen, intervertebral foramen, transverse process, spinous process, and superior and inferior articular surfaces
What is the function of the transverse process?
It provides attachement for muscles and articulates with the ribs
What are intervertebral discs comprised of?
FIbrous cartilage and elastic connective tissue ligaments
What are the three main components of the sacrum?
The superior articular surface, transverse lines of fusion, and the sacral foramina
What is the name of the flat bone that forms in the anterior midline of the thoracic wall?
What is the angle of the ribs an indication of?
The site where the tubular body or shaft, begins curving towards the sternum
What does the inferior portion of the tubercle on the ribs contain?
An articular facet that contacts the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra
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