clin path final review - 3
Terms in this set (57)
• Sodium citrate/blood ratio
BMBT (bucco mucosal bledding time)
can test for vWFdeficiency, abnormal platelet function or thrombocytopenia
helps platelets adhere to site of vessel injury, inherited deficiency in Dobermans, German Shepherds and Shelties
• aPTT (Activated partial thromboplastin time)
evaluates intrinsic and common clotting pathways
• PT (Prothrombin time)
evaluates extrinsic and common clotting pathways
tests for deficiencies in all clotting factors except Factor VII
• Vitamin K
is required for coagulation, can be decreased by rodenticides or dietary insufficiency or bile duct obstruction
• Classic signs of inflammation
redness, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function
• B lymphocytes
produce antibodies (humoral immunity)
• T lymphocytes
provide cell-mediated immunity
tests for humoral immunity
whether seen on a card test or under a microscope, always indicates an antigen/antibody reaction
Cats, cattle, sheep, and pigs
• DEA 1.1
elicits greatest antigen response and cause most transfusion reactions
• DEA 1.1 positive
DEA 1.1 negative
• One transfusion of DEA 1.1 + blood to DEA 1.1 -
is OK but a second one will cause a severe
• Most cats have type A blood, transfusing type A blood to type B cat will cause severe reaction
neonatal isoerythrolysis/hemolytic icterus or hemolytic anemia
occurs when the mother has antibodies against the blood type of the newborn.
commonly seen in kittens and foals, but has also been reported in puppies.
• Major crossmatch
recipient serum with donor cells
• Minor crossmatch
donor serum with recipient cells
• Chemistry samples
should be run within 1 hour after collecting or have serum/plasma separated from cells if longer than 1 hour
• Hemolysis and chemical contaminants (including incorrect anticoagulant
can interfere with chemistry results
• BUN, CREAT, and bicarbonate
test for kidney function
• AST, ALT, ALP, ALB, TP, CHOL, GLOB and TBILI
test for liver function
• T3 and T4
test for thyroid function
• AMY, LIP, and GLU
test for pancreas function
ability of test to identify true positive
ability of test to identify true negative
Blood Types: goats
5 blood types
A, B, C, M, and J
Naturally occurring J antibodies may be present
canine blood groups
Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA)
Major blood groups
Blood Types: cats
AB system, A, B, and AB
AB cats are extremely rare
Majority of cats in U.S. have type A blood
95% DSH cats are Type A
Type B are commonly found in certain purebred cats and % may vary with geography *
Blood Types: Cats (cont.)
Type B cats have strong anti-A antibodies
Type A cats have weak anti-B antibodies
Purebred cats should always be typed or crossmatched
Blood Types: sheep
7 blood types
Type B is polymorphic
Naturally occurring R antibodies may be present
Neonatal isoerythrolysis if lambs are given bovine colostrum
Blood Types: horses
More than 30 blood types in 8 major groups
Crossmatching should be done before any transfusion
Type III hypersensitivity disorders
Occur when antibodies and antigens form complexes that deposit in blood vessels
Type II hypersensitivity disorders
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA)
Destruction of RBCs by host
Type IV hypersensitivity
T-cell mediated disease caused by reaction of T lymphocytes against self-antigens in tissues
Type 1 diabetes
1. Hemophilia A
2. Hemophilia B (Christmas disease)
1. most commonly inherited in dogs, caused by Factor VIII deficiency
2. Factor IX deficiency
Rarely causes petechiae or ecchymoses
Coag DX™ Analyzer
Variety of tests from fresh or citrate anticoagulated blood
von Willebrand Disease
Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern
Low levels of circulating vWF with normal structure
Low levels of circulating vWF with abnormal structure
Near absence of vWF
Type 2 and 3 - most severe bleeding
Pre-treating with Desmopressin (DDAVP) can reduce bleeding complications from any surgical procedures
What is the most common type of white blood cell in a canine, feline, and equine?
What is the medical term for an increase in the total number of white blood cells?
Name a typical reason why there may be an elevated number of eosinophils in circulation.
Hypersensitivity reactions to parasites, allergic conditions or mast cell tumors
Name the white blood cells that are classified as granulocytes.
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What is the most common type of white blood cell in a ruminants, pigs, and rodents?
What is the most common cause of an increased number of neutrophils in peripheral blood?
Acute bacterial infection
What is a band neutrophil?
What is the term used to describe an increased number of band neutrophils in peripheral blood?
Identify the extracellular structures
Identify the abnormal inclusion in the neutrophil
What is the proper term that is used to describe a cell with a nucleus that has become dense and compact such as the one indicated by the red arrow in the picture?
What causes this change in the nucleus?
Pyknotic; cells has become old, indicates a delay between collecting blood and making smear
You should take extra precautions when handling blood that contains these structures. Why?
Trypanosomes (protozoa); it is zoonotic
Give the correct morphological term for the extracellular bacteria. What zoonotic, tick-borne disease is caused by bacteria in this category?
Spirochetes; Lyme disease or borreliosis
What common companion animal ectoparasite is a vector for Ehrlichia? Is Ehrlichia zoonotic?
Tick; yes, it is zoonotic
Name 2 toxic changes seen in neutrophils.
Diffuse cytoplasmic basophilia, cytoplasmic vacuolization (foamy cytoplasm), toxic granulation, changes to nucleus (i.e. ring form), giant neutrophils
What is the anticoagulant that is in a blue top tube? What is unique about this type of anticoagulant? What kind of blood tests is it used for?
Sodium citrate; it is reversible; coagulation testing