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European history final
Terms in this set (205)
What caused the pattern of late marriage in early modern Europe?
It was a necessary precondition of economic independence
During a young mans perios of apprenticeship he would..
Earn little money and work hard
A young woman entering domestic service could expect..
To work hard on an endless array of jobs
Until at least 1750 the practice of late marriage wide not lead to a large number of illegimate childeren because..
Of community pressure on a couple to marry when the women became pregnant
What was the purpose of the raucous public tiruals in which young men were in a village would publicly humiliate a couple that had experienced adultery or abuse?
To regulate personal behavior and maintain community standards
What place did prostitutes generally hold among the common people in towns?
They were accepted member of the community for the laboring poor
How were same-sex relations among women regard in comparison to same-sex relations among men?
While considered unnatural, same-sex relations among women watt reacted less anxiety and condemnation than those of men
What was the underlying reason for the illegitimacy explosion of 1750-1850?
Social and economic transformations made it harder for families and communities to supervise behavior
Wet-nursing practices included..
Rural wer-nursinf conducted within the framework of a putting out system
Some scholars have argued that the neglectful attitudes toaward children in preindustrial Europe were conditioned mostly by..
High infant mortality rates
In th 17th and 18th century, foundling home..
Had extremely high death rates
Which of the following describes the treatment of children in the 17th and early 18th century?
The disciplining of children was often severe in order to conquer the child's will
What did the new discourse about children that emerged in the 1760s emphasize?
A call for greater tenderness toward children
What was a danger that threatened young girls who were living faraway from home in domestic service?
Risk of sexual attack by males in the households they served
Which of the following characterizes education for children outside the home in the early modern era?
Schools for the children of common people taught basic literacy, religion, and some arithmetic for boys and needlework for girls
Why did Protestant countries take the lead in expanding education to all children?
They were inspired by the Protestant idea that every believer should be able to read the bible
In the 18th century, the diet of the poorer classes consisted largely of bread and ..
As literacy's expanded among the common people, what was a staple of popular literature other than the Bible?
The chapbook containing bible stories, prayers, and stories about the lives of the saints
How did the enlightens affect attitudes toward popular culture?
As the educated public adopted the enlightmenments critical worldview, they increasingly saw popular culture as superstitious and vulgar
In addition to supervising labor and birth, what was a typical task of a midwife?
Treating female medical difficulties
How did the diet of townspeople compare to that of the peasantry?
The townspeople ate more varied diets, since markets provided choices of meats, vegetables, and fruits
Why did sugar and tea become commonly consumed products by all social classes in the 18th century?
There was a steady drop in prices owing to the expanded use of colonial slave labor
What was the result of the consumer revolution of the 28gh century?
A new type of society in which people derived their self-identity as much from their consuming practices as from their work lives
The growth in 18th century consumerism in clothing was encouraged by what 2 factors?
The growth of fashion merchants who dictated changing styled and the declining production costs based on female labor
What was the greatest achievement of 18th century medical science?
Conquest of smallpox
How did the new fashion practices demonstrate changes in gender distinctions?
Men increasingly moved away from ostentaious fashions and moved toward plain dark suits, women acquired larger and more expensive wear drones
Edward Jenner recieved financial prizes from the British governemtn for..
Discovering that cowpox could be used to vaccinate against smallpox
In the 18th century, what was the focal point of community cohesion?
The parish church
The dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773 is a striking indication of the..
Power of the state over the church
In the 18th century what did the strength of popular religion in catholic countries reflect?
It's importance in community life
The religious revival movement known as pietism...
Called for a warm, emotional religion that everyone could expierence
In the 18th century what problems did the Church of England face?
Officials of both church and state used it to provide high-paying jobs to favorites and ignored the spiritual needs of people
Why was John Wesley's Methodism particularly appealing?
He refuted the doctrine of predestination, insisting that anyone who earnestly sought salvation could gain it
How did the evangelicals within the Church of England respongd to the rise of Methodism?
They copied Methodisms practices in order to appeal to more of the common people
Why did the persecution of withches slowly come to an end by the late 18th century?
Elites increasingly dismissed fears of witchcraft and refused to persecute suspected witches
Why did surgeons in the late 18th century face incredible difficulties?
Surgery was performed in utterly unsanitary conditions, which meant the simplest would could become infected and lead to death
18th centuryblood sports such as bullbaiting and cockfighting were..
Popular with the European masses
Europeans believed grain and bread should be available at..
A just price-one that was fair to both consumers and producers
Why did pietism which began in Germany in the late 17th century appeal to people?
It emphasized a warm and emotional religion
What was the catholic version of pietism?
One of the century's most influencial work on child reading was Emile; or, on education by...
Which of the following describes the enclosure movement of the 18th century?
The land was divided into plots bounded by fences to farm more effectively
Which of the following characterizes the condition of peasants in Western Europe in the 18th century?
They were generally free from serfdom and owned land that they could passs on to their children
In the 18th century, advocated for agricultural innovation argued that..
Landholdings and commonlands needed to be consolidated and enclosed in order to farm more effiecently
Which of the following correctly characterizes the transformation of the English and Scottish countryside in the enclosure era?
The elimination of common rights and accesss to land turned small peasant farmers into landless wage earners
The english navigation acts mandates to english agriculture in the 18th century?
Gave British merchants a virtual monopoly on trade with British colonies
What was Jethro Tulls contribution to English agriculture in the 18th century?
He critter accepted farming methods and developed better methods through empirical research
In the 18th century European public health measures...
Improved water supply and sewage systems
Population growth in Europe in the 18th century occurred..
In all regions
How did the problem of food shortages change in the 18th century?
Increased road and canal building permitted food to be more easily transported to regions with local crop failure and famine
`Holland's leadership in farming methodology can be attributed to...
The necessity to provide for a densely populated country
What was a competitive advantage of the rural putting-out system?
The rural poor worked for low wages
Within the family, the operation of the loom...
Was reserved for the male head of household
The spinning thread for the loom...
Required the work of several spinners for each loom, which had led merchants to employ the wives and daughter of agricultural workers at teerribly low wages
Merchant capitalists complained bitterly about..
Their inability to supervise and direct the work of rural laborers
The industrious revolution was a result of
Poor families choosing to reduce leisure time and the production of goods for household consumption in order to earn wages to buy consumer goods
In 17th and 18th century Europe guild masters...
Guarded their guild privileges jealousy
According to recent scholarship, during the 18th century the guild system..
Remained flexible as masters adopted new technologies and circumvented impractical ruules
Which of the following describes the role of women in guilds in the 18th century?
Masters began to hire more female workers, often in defiance of guild rules
At the center of Adam smiths arguments in the wealth of nations was the belief that...
The pursuit of self-interest in competitive markets would improve the living conditions of citizens
Between 1650 and 1790 a crucial component of the global economy was established when European nations developed..
The Atlantic economy
From 1701 to 1763 what was at stake in the wars between Great Britain and France?
The position as Europe's leading maritime power, with the ability to claim profits from Europes overseas expansion
What was the result of the war of the Austrian secession?
An inconclusive standoff that set the stage for further warfare
The British won the American component of the 7 years war owing to..
The size and strength of British naval power
In the 18th century the biggest increase in British foreign trade was with...
The British colonial empire
Which of the following characterizes 18th century trade in Europe?
Britains mercanti;isn't system achieved remarkable success as trade with its colonies grew substantially
Whcich of the following characterizes the regions to which slaves were carried from asfrica to the ameericas?
about 90% of claves were transported to Brazil or the Caribbean with only 3% brought to North America
Why did European slave traders in Africa adopt the "shore method" of trading in the 18th sentry?
It permitted Europeans to move easily along the coast, obtaining slackers at various slave markets and then departing quickly for the americas
In Africa the slave trade primarily resulted in..
More wars and likely fewer people
By the 18th century the elite of Spanish solonial society...
Came to believe that their circumstances gave them different interests and characteristics from those in spain
Christianity in colonial societies in the amerucas
Took on distinctive characteristics through a complex process of culturalexchange that made Christianity more comprehensive to indigenous people
What was the status of Jews in European colonies in the 18th century?
They faced political and economic forms of discrimination but were considered to be white Europeans and thus could not be enslaved
Why did the Dutch fail to maintain their dominance in Asia?
The dutch east India company failed to diversify its trade to meet changing consumption patterns in europe
Who provided the labor force for Britain's initial colonization of Australia?
The proletarianization of peasant in the 18th century forced them to
Become landless rural earners
Arthur young, an 18th century agricultural experimentalist advocated....
Large=scale enclosure as a necessary means to achieve progress
The treaty that ended the 7 years war in europe and the colonies in 1763 and ratified British victory on all colonial fronts was the
Treaty of paris
In the 18th century the wests largest and richest city was
Wealthy Spanish landowners kept indigenous workers on their estates through a system of
Debt peonage in which landowners advanced food, shelter, and some money, in this way keeping the workers in perpetual debt
People of Spanish ancestry born in the americas were referred to as
Britains great rival for influence in India in the 18th century was
Between 1700 and 1835 Europe's population
At the congress of Vienna the victorious allies
Were guided by the principle of the balance of power
The allied powers at the congress of Vienna were determined to
Avoid the creation of hostility and resentment in French
The karlsbad decrees of 1819
Defined an idea of German nationalism built around a summon language, culture, and set of values
What did Kyle end von Metternich and Alexander I proclaim at the -tropopause conference in 1820?
Their support for the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever threatened
What did the early French socialist thinkers find disturbing about the emerging society?
They believed that industrial society fomented selfish individualism and split the community into isolated fragments
Why did klemens von Metternich as Austrian foreign minister, have to oppose the spread of nationalism in europe?
Austria was a multiethnic empire and the spread of nationalism among its different ethnic groups threatened to dissolve the empire
The romantic movement was characterized by..
A belief in emotional exuberance and unrestrained imagination
The romantic poet William Wordsworth conceived of poetry as the
Spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility
Romantics and early nationalists investigated folk songs, folks ales, and proverbs in order to
Find the unique greatness of every people in its folk culture
In their war of independence against the Ottoman Empire, the Greeks ultimately won the support of
Great Britain, France, and russia
Composer in the romantic movement
Abandoned well-defined structures and used a wide range of forms to evoke powerful emotions
Many Europeans and Americans embraces the Greek revolution becasue
Of a love of Greek classical culture
What was one of Karl Marx's most important critics of the French utopian socialists?
Their utopian schemes were not realistic
Karl Marx argued that socialism would be established
by violent revolution
According to the doctrine of losses faire the government should intervene in
The economy as little as possible
According to Joseph Proudhon in the 19th century property was
Profit stolen from workers
What did count henry de Saint-Simon believe in the 19th century?
The key to progress was proper social organization
The British corn laws of 1815 were enacted with the goal of
Forbidding the importation of foreign gain unless prices in Britain reached very high DIPP: levels, selfishly benefiting the artistic ratio landowners in britain
In the 19th century what did Eugene Delacroixs work typically feature?
Dramatic, colorful scenes
In Great Britain, the great reform bill of 1832?
Gave greater representation to the new, industrial areas of the nation
What was the driving force in history according to Marx in the 19th century?
The economic relationship between classes
In the 19th century, how did Ireland's population grow despite extreme poverty?
Extensive cultivation of the humble potato
How did Charles X of France seek to rally political support for himself in 1830?
He invaded Algeria and establish it as a French territory
What was the effect of frances Consitutional charter in the post-napoleonic period?
It secured most of the gains made by the middle class and the peasantry during the French Revolution and permitted intellectual and artistic freedom
What was the most important influence in the peaceful mid-century reforms in Great Britain?
Political competition between the aristocracy and the middle calss
In 1848, what reform did the French governemtn refuse that created a sense of class injustice?
What reform did Frances second republic institute in 1848?
The right to vote for all adult men
How did the French provisional government respond to the worsening depression and rising unemployment in 1848?
It established national workshops to provide employment in public works projects
Which social groups comprises the revolutionary alliance during the revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe?
Students and urban workers
In 1848 how did the Hungarian revolutionaries envision a future hungary?
As a unified, a centralized Hungarian nation
During the Prussian revolution in 1848 why did the alliance between middle=class liberals and workers dissolve?
Workers demanded a series of democratic and vaguely socialist reforms
Why was the frankfurt parliament in 1849 unable to create a 'greater Germany"?
Determined to maintain its empire, Austria would not agree to a greater germany that separated German speaking lands from non German territories
The quadruple alliance, the nations that defeated napoleon included
Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain
In December 1825, some 3000 army officers inspired by liberal ideas staged a protest against which new tsar?
Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist, envisioned mathematically precise communities called "phalanxes" and also urged
The abolition of marriage, free unions bases only on love, and sexual freedom
Germaine de Stael urged the French to throw away worn-out classical models and extolled spontaneity and enthusiasm of the writer and thinkers of
In 1830, an unsuccessful revolution failed to re-create the country of
What was the result of the "June days" in France in 1848?
The triumph of the republican army under genreal louis cavaignac, after street fightin and the death or injury of more than ten thousand people
In 1849 the revolution in Hungary was brought under control with th whelp of 130,000 troops sent by
The Russian empire
Victor Hugo's political evolution was exactly the opposite of Wordsworths whose..
Youthful radicalism gave way to middle-aged caution
The chariot movement in britain in the 1830s and 1840s demanded
Universal male suffrage
Who invented the spinning Jenny?
How did labor in British families change in the 18th century?
Family members shifted labor away from unpaid work for household consumption and toward work for wages
How did cotton transform the textile industry?
Cotton could be spun mechanically with much greater efficiently than wool or flax, helping to solve the shortage of thread for textile prodution
What did James watt gain from his partnership with Matthew bouton?
Capital and skills in salesmanship
The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
Usually a response to the wishes of the families
Why did 18th century britain have a shortage of wood>
Wood has been over harvested; it was the primary source of heat in all homes and a basic raw material in industryq
Thomas Malthus argued in his essay on the principle of population that
Population tends to increase beyond the means of substinense
How did railroads affect the nature of production?
Markets become broader, encouraging manufactures to cereate larger factories with more sophisticated machines
What did henry court develop?
The puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined with coke
What was the result of the development of the British economy between 1780 and 1851?
Much of the growth in the gross national product was earthen up by the population growth
What did the mines act of 1842 prohibit?
Underground work for all women and girls as well as boys under ten
David Ricardo's iron law of wages states that
The pressure of population growth will always sink wages to subsistence DIFF: level
What was the major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyze the industrial revolution?
James watts development of the steams engine between the 1760s and the 1780s
How did industry grow in continental europe?
Belgium led continental europe in adopting British technology for production
In the 19th century germany, fritz harcourt sought
To match english achievements in machine prodution as quickly as possible even as great unprofitable expense
In the 19th century, friedrich list believed that industrial development should be pursued
As part of a project of economic nationalism led by state
How did class-consciousness form during the industrial revolution?
As modern industry created conflict between industrialists and laborers, individuals came to believe that classes existed and developed a sense of class feeling
The Great Exhibition of 1851 commemorated the
Industrial dominance of britain
How did the origins of industrialists change as the industrial revolution progressed?
It became harder to form new firms, and instead industrialists were increasingly likely to have inherited their wwelath
What was William cockerill?
An English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in belgium
Who were the luddites?
British handicraft workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery they believed were putting them out of work
What was the key development in the 18th century that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative nature?
Establishment of limited liability investment
Why were cottage workers, accustomed to the putting out system, relocating to work in the new factories even when they recieved good wages?
In a factory, workers had to keep up with the machine and follow its relentless tempo
In the condition of the working class in England, friedrich Engels states that
In general, the living conditions of the working class would lead to "social revolution"
The factory act of 1833 constituted a major victory in the rprevemtion of the exploitation. Of children in that irt
Banned children under nine years of age for employment
Owing to the industrial revolution, living and working conditions for the poor
Improved only after 1820
What was an effect of the factory act of 1833?
It limited the work of children and thereby broke the pattern of families working together in factories
In the "separate spheres" pattern of gender relationships
Women generally stopped working outside of the home after the first child was was born
How did older members of the population seek to control the sexuality of working class youths?
They supported the establishment of sex segregated employment
Which law outlawed labor unions and strikes in britain
Combination acts of 1799
The reform Robert Owens sought to
Create a single large national union for British workers
In the 18th century railroad construction on the European continent
Featured varying degrees of government involvement
What was the key demand of the chartist movement?
All men must be given the right to vote
In 1850 in what occupational area did the largest number of British people work?
Farming and agriculture
What major problem in the textile industry was solved by the inventions of James Hargreaves and Richard Arkwright?
A weaver required several spinners to stay steadily emploted
How did iron become the basic building block of the British economy in the 19th century?
The spread of coke smelting and the development of steam powered rollin mills increased production enormously and reduced the price of iron products
Why do many historians now believe that the continued concentration by the French on artisan production of liuxury items made sense in an era of industrialization?
France had long dominated that sector of prodution; it allowed France to capitalize on its know how and international reputation
Why were the young, generally unmarried women who worked for wages outside the home confined to certain "women s jobs"?
The sexual division of labor replicated a long standing pattern of gender segregation and inequaloty
As the business world grew increasingly complex, what did the wives and daughters of successful businessmen discover in 18th century europe?
There were few job opportunities for women, as most businessmen assumed that middle class wives and daughters should avoid work in offices and factories
In his 1835 study of the cotton industry, what did Andrew use conclude about conditions in most factories?
They were not harsh and even quite good
What was the function of the srystal palace?
It was the location of the great exhibition in 1851 in london
Who wrote a vindication of the rights of man and a vindication of the rights of women the latter a founding text of the feminist movement?
What occurred during the 100 days in France>
Napoleon returned from exile to rule France briefly
How did Americans consitutional convention of 1787 deal with the discord between pro and anti slavery delegates?
It compromised by stipulating than an enslaved person would count as 3/5s of a person for purposes of taxation and proportional representation in the house of reps
In the 18th century many liberal thinkers believed that representatince insitutions could defend the liberty and interests of the people. What did this mean in terms of political practice?
Voting for representatives would be restricted to men of property
Louis XV damaged the sense of his sacred authority by
Allowing his common born mistress to exercise tremendous influence culturally and politically
Why did great Britain seek to raise taxes on its American colonies in the 1760s
After Doubling it's national debt in the seven years war great Britain sought to tax the American colonies to fund the further defense of the colonies
Why was France unable to manage its debt in the 18th century even though the debt was
France lacked a central bank and paper currency
Why did the directory continue French wars of conquest begun by early revolutionary government's
The directory understood that big victorious armies kept men employed
The national assembly that ruled France from 1789 to 1791 passed laws that
Declared all men and woman to be equal
The attack on the bastill had what political effect
The kings plan to reassert is authority were forstalled permitting the National Assembly to continue work
In the wake of the great famine in the summer of 1789 the National Assembly restored order by
Abolishing all of the old noble and church privelages
Who forced the king and the royal family to abandon Versailles and return to Paris?
Several thousand Parisian women
The abbe sieyes considered the third estate
The true strength of the French nation
The declaration of the rights of man and the citizen guarenteed
Equality before the law
How did the reaction of the kings and nobles in the continental europe toward the French Revolution change over the revolutions first two years?
Initially please by the revolutions weakening of France, they cane to feel threatened by its increasingly radical message
How did the delegates to the legislative assembly that convened in October 1791 differ from the delegates to the estates general/National Assembly?
They were younger and less cautious; many joined political clubs
How did French armies during the French Revolution offer a mixed message to the people the conquered
They presented themselves as liberators to the peasants and middle class but seemed more like foreign invaders as they requisitioned food and supplies and plundered local ttreasure
What was the goal of the committee of public safety?
To use doctoral powers to respond to threats to France from without and within
In the 1780s, over 50% of frances annual budget was expanded on
Interest payments on debt
The legal definition of the composition of the prerevolutionary third estate included
Everyone who was not a noble or member of the clergy
By July 1794, how had the central government in Paris managed to reassert control over the provinces and gain momentum against the first coalition?
It harnessed the explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism into a total war effort
The men elected to represent the third estate at the estates general were primarily
Lawyers and government officials
As the jacobins gained power, what was their reaction to women's political activity?
They banned all women's political activity, which they believed to be disorderly and a distraction from women's proper domestic duties
Why did the French commissioners in saint-Dominique abolish slavery in 1793?
They were desperate to rally the rebels slaves to the French cause against the Spanish and english forces
Why did members of the national convention turn against Robespierre on the ninth of thermidor?
They believed that Robespierre had betrayed the revolution by accepting bribes from great britain
Which of the foillowing correctly identifies Napoleon Bonaparte's background?
He won brilliant victories in Italy in 1796 and 1797
What 2 fundamental principles of the French Revolution were incorporated into the napoleonic code?
The equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of welalth
The string of French military victories after the qwinner of the 1793-94 owed largely to
Patriotism and the superior numbers supplied by the draft
What caused the life and death political struggle between the girondist and the mountain?
The Girondists more moderate polocies
In the summer of 1789 the National Assembly was driven toward more radical action by
Revolutionary actions of French peasants and the common people of paris
How did the concordat resolve the crisis over Catholicism in France in the mapoleonic era?
The Catholic Church gained the right to practice religion freely, while the French state gained greater control over the nomination of church -officers and church activities
How did napoleon consolidate his rule?
He appealed both to disillusioned revolutionaries and members of the old nobility and offered them high posts in the expanding centralized state
Why was the Declaration of Independence so important to the American revolution?
It universalized the traditional rights of english people and made them the rights of all mankind
What was the economic effect of napoleons continental system?
French artisans and the middle class suffered for they were economically damaged by the bloockade of great britain
According to the Olympe de gouges
Men and women should be equal in the eyes of the law
How did the National Assembly respond to the hopes and the expectations of Saint-Dominique's different social groups?
It frustrated the hopes of all the different social groups
After the arrest and deportation of toussaint l'ouverture, how was the war of Haitian independence resolved?
Jean-Jacques dessalines, l'ouvertures lieutenants, led the resistance to a crushing victory over the fremnch and later declared Haitian independence
The loyalist faction in the American revolution
Tended to be wealthy and politically moderate
Why did the antifederalists oppose the new American constitution proposed by the consitutional conversation?
They feared for the individual freedoms for which they had fought
Who predicted in reflections on the revolution in France that reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny?
What was napoleons grand empire>
An enlarged France, a number of satellite kingdoms and the independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
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