33 terms

APES Chapter 12

Friedland APES Chapter 12 Nonrenewable Energy Resources
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nonrenewable
once these resources are used up, they cannot be replenished.
fossil fuels
derived from biological matter that became fossilized millions of years ago. coal, oil and natural gas are examples.
nuclear fuels
derived from radioactive materials that give off energy. we harness that energy by transferring heat.
commercial energy sources
sources that are bought and sold such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
subsistence energy sources
sources gathered by individuals for their own immediate needs.
EROEI (energy return on energy investment)
how much energy we get out of an energy source for every unit of energy expended on its production. (energy obtained from the fuel)/(energy invested to obtain the fuel).
energy carrier
something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users.
turbine
a large device that resembles a fan or a get energy. usually turned by generated steam.
electrical grid
a network of interconnected transmission lines that are used to transport electricity. it connects power plants together and links them with end users of electricity.
combined cycle
A power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity.
capacity
maximum electrical output.
capacity factor
fraction of the time a plant is operating
cogeneration
the use of fuel to generate electricity and heat (AKA combined heat and power)
coal
a solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials that were preserved 280 million to 360 million years ago. the four types of coal are lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite.
petroleum
another widely used fossil fuel, that is a fluid mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur that occurs in underground deposits.
flaring
burning off of the natural gas under controlled conditions in order to prevent an explosion
crude oil
liquid petroleum that is removed from the ground.
oil sands
slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay.
bitumen
a degraded type of petroleum that forms when a petroleum deposit is not capped with nonporous rock (AKA tar or pitch).
CTL (coal-to-liquid)
the technology to convert solid coal into liquid fuel.
energy intensity
energy use per unit of gross domestic product.
hubbert curve
projects the point at which world oil production would reach a maximum and the point at which we would run out of oil.
peak oil
The point at which half the total known oil supply is used up.
fission
a nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atmoic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts.
fuel rods
A cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel within a nuclear reactor.
control rods
cylindrical devices that can be inserted between the fuel rods to absorb excess neutrons, thus slowing or stopping the fission reaction.
radioactive waste
Nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity.
high-level waste
waste in the form of fuel rods
low-level waste
waste in the form of contaminated protective clothing, tools, rags, and other items used in routine plant maintenance.
uranium mine tailings
the residue left after uranium ore is mined and enriched.
becquerel (Bq)
measure the rate of which a sample of radioactive material decays. 1 = the decay of 1 atom per second.
curie
another unit of measure for radiation. 1 = 37 billion decays per second.
nuclear fusion
occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei.