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Cognitive Psych Ch. 4
Terms in this set (66)
name of the word interferes with the ink color
reading is highly practiced
difficult to avoid "irrelevant stimuli" or distractors the meanings of the words
concentrating on specific features of the environment. a basic function which is a precursor to all other cognitive functions. it is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating. sustained focus.
types of attention
selective attention, sustained attention (vigilance), alternating attention, divided attention
focus on one message and ignore all others
(vigilance) maintain attention during continuous and repetitive activity
mental flexibility, allows individuals to shift their focus of attention
ability to respond simultaneously on multiple tasks
visual event that persists after initial stimulus goes away. holds information attended to for seconds/ fractions of a second.
working memory/ short term memory
working memory stores information to be used for manipulation - not passive storage. temporary storage and manipulation of information - such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning.
determines which information gains access to working memory
Through BLANK control higher cognitive processes can regulate signal intensity in information channels that compete for access to BLANK and give them an advantage in the process of competitive BLANK.
top down, working memory, selection
a person has a certain cognitive capacity which can be used for carrying out various tasks
the amount of a person's cognitive resources used to accomplish a task
easy or well practiced ones, driving home from school. use up only a small amount of the person's cognitive resources
high load tasks
difficult or not as well practiced, driving somewhere new. use more of a person's cognitive resources
nillie lavie (1995)
the amount of cognitive resources that are left over as a person carries out a primary task determines how well you can avoid being distracted or how well you can avoid attending to task irrelevant stimuli
when cognitive load is low, task irrelevant stimuli ...
are processed even if observer is focusing attention on another stimulus
when cognitive load is high, task irrelevant stimuli...
are not processed
is there a limit to the amount of cognitive resources?
broadbent says selection starts at
broadbent's attention model is called
early selection model. simplest model. we decide what to focus on before sensation
treisman says selection happens
in the middle of process
treisman's attention model is called
intermediate selection model. we decide what to focus on based on characteristics of the input.
mckay says selection happens
after we process
mckay's attention model is called
late selection model. most information is processed for meaning before we make a decision to pay attention to it.
according to broadbent's early selection model what holds all the information for a fraction of a second
according to broadbent's early selection model attended message is identified when
at the very beginning, filters out all other information
according to broadbent's early selection model, once message is attended to...
information is processed for meaning. top down processing of everything that has been let through.
STM receives all the info after detector processing. holds for how many seconds?
10-15 seconds. may transfer it to LTM
who is associated with dichotic listening
colin cherry (1953)
separate messages presented to each ear. participant shadows. repeats out loud what he just heard.
results of dichotic listening
could not report the message in the unattended ear. registered that there was a message and the gender of the speaker.
how does dichotic listening disprove broadbent's early selection model
according to broadbent's model, information in the unattended message should not be accessible to consciousness
cocktail party phenomenon
neville moray 1959
participants unaware of a word that had been repeated 35 times in the unattended ear, participants shadowed message in one ear and ignored the other, participants name and fire in unattended ear were heard.
in the cocktail party phenomenon, why does some unattended input get through?
because of meaning. meaning demands attention
according to anne treisman's intermediate selection model strength of message going forward is modulated where?
describe the attenuation stage according to anne treisman's intermediate selection model
attended message is let through the attenuator at full strength, unattended message is let through at a much weaker strength
what is the attenuator according to anne treisman's intermediate selection model
a device for decreasing the amplitude of an electronic signal. functions like filter but modulates threshold.
according to anne treisman's intermediate selection model, what are the two stages for analyzing meaning
attenuator and dictionary unit
attenuator analyzes incoming message in terms of ...?
physical characteristics - high or low pitch, fast or slow
language - syllable or word groupings
meaning - how sequence of words creates meaningful thoughts
gender - will discriminate b/w gender and if they are close, will respond to meaning
contains words, each of which have thresholds for being activated.
words that are common or important in dictionary unit
low thresholds/ grab attention
uncommon words in dictionary unit
high thresholds/ tend to be ignored
ray and Weddeburn's dear aunt jane experiment
shadow message in one ear. pick up meaningful message in unattended ear. attended ear heard dear 7 jane. unattended ear heard 9 aunt 6. person says they hear dear aunt jane
what did the dear aunt jane experiment show
particpants cah snadow meaningful meassages that switch from one ear to the other. this occurred because they were taking the meaning of the word into account.
late selection model
selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after information has been analyzed for meaning
mckay's late selection model experiment
in attending ear, participants hear ambiguous sentences "they were throwing stones at the bank." in attended ear, they hear "river" or "money" in the test, participants choose which was closest to the meaning of attended message. (they threw stones toward the side of the river. they threw stones at the money bank yesterday.)
results of mckay's late selection model experiment
the meaning of the biasing word affected participants' choice. participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words. because the meaning of the unattended word was affecting judgement, the word must have been processed to the level of meaning.
according to mckay's late selection, words must have been processed at what level
level of meaning, processed late in the selection process
describe mckay's late selection model
all processing happens right before selection, assess meaning from unattended ear to understand message before making selection, both attended and unattended messages were instrumental in arriving at meaning, unlike bird and bus meanings are not separate but interconnected
attention without eye movements, focus eyes without attending, read words while clueless about meaning
apparent focus, eye movements are mechanisms supporting and indicating attention
stimulus that is not attended to is not perceived, even though a person might be looking directly at it
if shown two versions of a picture, differences between them are not immediately apparent. task to identify differences requires concentrated attention and search
perception is related to
areas that stand out and capture attention. not determined by meaning. depends on characteristics of the stimulus.
color and motion are highly or lowly salient
knowledge about what is contained in such scenes. guide fixations, stimulus salience, gestalt rules and individual players
eye movements are determined by task
directing attention where something will appear enhances the processing of that stimulus
location based attention
attention being directed to a specific location or place
object based attention
attention being directed to a specific object
treisman and schmidt study
participants report combo of features from diff stimuli, illusory conjunctions occur because features are free floating
what did treisman and schmidt find
feature integration theory. objects are initially seen in parts and then analyzed.
feature integration theory
perceptual system analyzes lines, angles, color first and then puts it all together. objects are analyzed into their features and attention is necessary to combine these features to create perception of an object.
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