Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
UNIT 2: A NEW NATION: PERIOD 3 (1754-1800)
Terms in this set (46)
Benjamin Franklin submitted the plan during the Fr. and Ind. War, gathering the colonial delegates. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. Also aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
The 9 year war was fought between the French and Indian allies against the British and their Indian allies. The war started in America and extended to Europe. France diverted many resources to fighting the Prussians. The war was fought on the colonial frontier. After a string of defeats, the British soon were able to break into New France and capture Quebec and finally Montreal in 1670. This is significant as France soon ceded all of it's American continental holding to the British and the Spanish, and Britain was the confirmed dominant empire in eastern America.
Pontiac's Rebellion (1736)
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763.
Proclamation of 1763
Issued by King George III at the end of the French & Indian War. It forbade settlers from settling past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
Stamp Act (1756)
An act passed by the British parliament that raised revenue from the American colonies by a tax in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Committees of Correspondence
Organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, it was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Townshend Act of 1767
Named for Charles Townshend, head of British ministry. Persuaded Parliament to pass these regulations with an import duty on glass, lead, paper and paint and tea. used to pay colonial governors, who had previously been paid directly by colonial assemblies. Sparked another wave of protests.
Sons of liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They fueled riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Also they were throwing snowballs. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution. Considered the first shots of the Revolutionary War and was used as propaganda for both sides by construing accounts of the incident.
Letter from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
an incredible popular pamphlet published in the colonies containing a series of essays written by the Pennsylvania lawyer and legislator John Dickinson. Argued that Parliament could regulate colonial trade, but could not exercise that power to raise revenue. They were important in uniting the colonists against the Townshend Acts
Boston Tea Party (1773)
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally colonists disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 1774
This was a series of very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance and for the Boston Tea Party. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes. Also dissolved all town meetings in MA, and appointed British as all government officials.
First Continental Congress (1774)
Met in Philly, Penn in response to the passing of the Intolerable acts. 56 delegates attended representing 12 of the 13 colonies (exception of Georgia) and included people such as George Washington, John Adams, Samuel Adams, and John Dickinson. They decided to boycott British goods, authorize Committees of Safety, send a petition to King George III and wait and see how Parliament reacted. These decisions led to the provoking of the British, the American Revolution, and the meeting of the Second Continental Congress (Declaration of Independence).
Second Continental Congress (1775)
Met in Philly, Pennsylvania soon after the start of the American Revolutionary War. Most important achievement was their passing of the Declaration of Independence, written by TJ. It didn't make the colonies independent, but it boosted morale and put grievances against the crown in writing. the Declaration eventually led to the actual independence of the USA. It stressed many of the natural rights that were new & radical ideas at the time but have become the ideals that our nation has built itself upon (like enslaving people & only letting landowners vote)
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The 2 battles sparked the war between the American colonists & the British. Governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day in 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston. The British were trying to establish control, while the Americans were protecting their rights.
Common Sense (1776)
Political pamphlet by Thomas Paine supporting Independence & discussed issues like colonial grievances with England, ideas of a democratic system based on elections & citizens' rights protected by a written constitution, & how the colonies shouldn't pay for England's wars. Took ideas of the American Independence leaders & wrote them for the common people, helped win support for war.
John Locke (1632-1704)
An English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. Wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. Believed the government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers & their people, & if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government. His theory of humanity having the right to life and liberty were used in the Declaration of Independence: Life, Liberty, & the pursuit of Happiness
Loyalists / Tories
People who remained loyal to England during the Revolutionary war against the Patriots, and there were about 20% of the population when the war was over.
Battle of Saratoga
After Burgoyne had captured Fort Ticonderoga in 1777 his troops ran into trouble and became exhausted, supplies ran short, etc. He then sent an expedition to Bennington to capture American supplies but a force of New England militia met them and defeated them. His men were surrounded near Saratoga by the Continental Army, he surrendered. This battle was the turning point of the war and convinced France to aid the American cause.
French Alliance of 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn't do anything to help.
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
Washington adopted a proclamation in order to maintain the stability of the new country. He did not want America to become mixed up in foreign affairs b/c he felt that this carried the prospect of tearing the new nation to shreds. To him, keeping order within the country was far more important than anything from abroad. The isolation that came from neutrality allowed America to thrive on it's own and is part of the reason the country survived. America held on to this neutral ideal until after WWII. Although it did technically violate the Franco-American Treaty
Battle of Yorktown- (1781)
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War) American troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau trapped British troops under Charles Cornwallis and his troops in the Chesapeake Bay, with the help of Admiral de Grasse and the French fleet. Cornwallis was forced to surrender. Although not the last of the fighting, this signified the end of the war.
Treaty of Paris- 1783
Treaty in which British formally recognized the independence of the United States; granted generous boundaries (Mississippi River to Great Lakes to Spanish Florida plus a share in the priceless fisheries on Newfoundland); Americans could no longer persecute Loyalists and had to restore their property to them; states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of debt-collecting from British
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1776)
Written by Jefferson and Madison. Argued that the concept of religion that is required by law or is mandatory is wrong, no forced religious worship or ministry and no discrimination on account of his opinions or belief but free to believe what they wish, and that these rights were natural rights of mankind. Served as a model for the religion clause of the first amendment to the Constitution
The wife of second president John Adams. She attempted to get rights for the "Ladies" from her husband who at the time was on the committee for designing the Declaration of Independence. She wrote to him and famously said "Don't forget about the women", that was the start of women's rights. She was also a member of the Daughters of Liberty.
Pennsylvania's Gradual Emancipation Law
Approach to ending slavery that called for the phasing out of slavery over a period of time; many gradual emancipation proposals were built around the granting of freedom to children of slaves who were born after a specified date, usually when they attained a specified age; in this way, as existing slaves aged & dies, slavery would slowly die too. Many of the northern states, which abolished slavery following the Revolution, adopted this method of ending the institution.
Shay's' Rebellion (1786-1787)
A revolt against the state government of Massachusetts. The rebellion underscored the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and played a significant part in the formation of the United States Constitution and the threatened the economic interests of the business elites. Debt-ridden farmers hurt by inflation couldn't meet payments on their farm mortgages. Rather than go to debtors' prison and/or lose their farms to creditors suing them in court to foreclose, a group of farmers, led by Daniel Shays, took up arms against the courts. The result was bloody violence; Congress did not have the authority to stop it. This was the last straw for many opponents of the Articles.
Constitutional Convention (1787)
In response to the Annapolis Convention's suggestion, Congress called for states to send delegates to Philly to amend the Articles of Confederation. Delegates drafted an entirely new framework that would give greater powers to the central government called the Constitution.
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work and enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists.Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
Ratification of the U.S. Constitution. It was required that conventions of nine of the thirteen original States ratify the constitution. Once word was received that the ninth state had ratified the constitution - New Hampshire, June 21, 1788 - a timetable was set for the start of operations under the Constitution, and on March 4, 1789, the government under the Constitution began operations.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments in the U.S. Constitution. Written in 1789 and ratified on 1791, the Bill of Rights outlines the citizen's basic rights and are a key component to law and government. It give the people certain rights that cannot be taken away. The Foundation of all other laws and is included with the Constitution. The Amendments were written to protect the American people and insure fairness.
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Necessary because of excessive debts and led to the split into two political parties. 1) Government would pay off its debt at face value plus accumulated interest. Although it kept our nation in a huge debt it boosted Americans attitudes toward the government. This was significant because it showed that the U.S. government would honor its financial obligations. 2) National Bank served as a stable place for the U.S. gov. to place it's money. It gave out bonds to the better well off who were willing to lend money to the government, and also did a variety of other things, such as . Basically, all of the government's funds went to one location, the Bank of U.S. 3)Protective Tariff were a tariff imposing 8% on the value of dutiable imports. Revenue was the main goal. Designed to protect small industries just getting started. Hamilton wanted more protection for the well-to-do manufacturing groups. Congress still had agriculture and commercial interest dominating. Gets shut down.
Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
By the late 1780s, 2 different political parties started emerging. One, was the Federalist Party which was led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The other, was the Democratic-Republicans which was led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. The Federalists believed in a strong national government with the Constitution while the Democratic-Republicans opposed a strong central government and instead believes that the power be in the hands of the state and the people. The Federalists were more leaning towards the peace side of preventing war with Great Britain and recalling the French Revolution as a horror while the Democratic-Republicans liked the democratic, anti-aristocratic spirit of the French Revolution. The Federalists wanted to create tariffs and importation taxes while the Democratic-Republicans were against that because farming was the epitome of America.
Tariff & Currency Disputes
Control of taxation and tariffs was left to the states, and each state could issue its own currency. In disputes between states Congress served as mediator and judge, but could not require a state to accept its decisions.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
A group of Pennsylvania farmers protested against a federal whiskey tax by terrorizing tax collectors. Alexander Hamilton quelled the rebellion by ordering G.W. to personally lead a 15,000-man militia to confront the rebels. The Whiskey Rebellion was an example of a negative reaction to the increase in federal taxing power that was granted by the Constitution. Hamilton's ability to mobilize a national militia in order to intimidate the rebels into submission was also a new power that the national government did not previously have under the Articles of Confederation.
Jay's Treaty (1794)
Treaty between Britain and the U.S with certain demands to secure compensation for recent British attacks on American shipping, to demand British withdrawal from frontier posts and to negotiate a new commercial treaty. Although this treaty failed as a whole, it was able to achieve some goals. It settled the conflict between Britain & America temporarily, & helped steer the two countries away from war against one another. Even produced a weak but present commercial relationship. Helped establish American sovereignty over the entire Northwest. Americans were naturally divided about this treaty, some believed that Americans did not ask enough, while others tried to prevent ratification altogether.
Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
An address written by G.W. and though it wasn't delivered orally, many Americans read pamphlets and newspapers containing the address. The address covered the general topics of cooperation between governments and the importance of the Constitution, among others; views held on each of these subjects would change over time. However, Washington's warnings against involvement in foreign affairs were heeded up. In his address, Washington encouraged an isolationist foreign policy where the U.S. would remain unattached (as allies) from other countries. This policy, Washington believed, would prevent America from sacrificing the well-being of its people for the honoring of an alliance.
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in which Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi and use the New Orleans port. Spain also agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida along the 31st parallel and prevent Indians from launching raids across the border into the U.S.
X, Y, Z Affair
Delegates sent to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working out the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Treaty of Paris. France began to break off relations with the U.S. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress. The X, Y, Z affair brought about the Quasi war and caused relations to deteriorate between former allies. It was also a test of America's neutral stance on foreign entanglements and cooler heads allowed America to get out of a war that could have possibly threatened the existence of the young nation.
Quasi War (w/France)
War with France ended peacefully due to a treaty with the United States that canceled the old agreement of 1778 and established new commercial arrangements. The U.S. began cooperated and became virtually an ally of Britain in the undeclared war against France. Eventually, France decided to reconcile with the United States before tension grew between them. Because our country was so new, European powers looked upon the new nation condescendingly. The U.S. was fortunate that the the war did not escalate into a full scale war because they would have lost.
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
Following the end of the quasi war with France. The Acts gave the President more power to deal with aliens in the country. It called for the govt. to prosecute those who participated in demonstrations of discontent and rebellion to the gov. Acts helped to discourage those who wished to immigrate to America, and also prompted many to leave the country. Because the term "sedition" was interpreted by its Federalist creators, any form of opposition was seen as sedition. The Republican Party immediately saw this as an attempt to put an end to their efforts. The Federalist administration did in fact arrest ten Republicans, most convicted of criticism of the Federalists in their newspapers.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
These were two resolutions (each in their respective state) that countered the Alien and Sedition Acts. They were created by TJ and James Madison, respectively, and argued that the federal got its power from the states. Essentially, any action beyond the federal government's delegated powers was VOID. In this way, states would be able to restrict federal legislation by revoking laws they thought inappropriate. It provided opposition to the Federalist party. This ensured that no single party would completely dominate the central gov. This sets the precedent for better representation for the people. The resolutions, in IDEA, were supposed to increase state power to offset federal domination. The ideas behind the resolutions helped form the gov. we have today, with equal power between the central and state gov.
"Revolution" of 1800
Battle between Jefferson representing the Republicans and Adams for the presidency, with Adams. More specifically, the followers of each party "fought" against one another, spreading malicious rumors about the opposing party's leader. Jefferson was elected, but there was controversy over who would serve as vice president, for Jefferson and Vice-Presidential candidate Aaron Burr both received an equal number of votes. After several re-elections, Jefferson was elected as president. Despite the explosive nature of the campaign, the election resulted in an unexpected, but peaceful, transfer of power from the Federalist to the Republican party. Strong opposition from supporters on both sides of the election, highlights the fact that many Americans were divided over who should win the presidency, the transfer of power between the two parties was peaceful despite deep divisions of the people went against trends of that time to rebel violently. All things seen today.
Haitian Revolution (1789-1804)
The revolution was fought between the slave citizens in Haiti and armies from 3 European countries. Haiti gained its independence and became the first black republic in the Atlantic world. As a result of the horrors of this war, 1000s of refugees from Haiti came to America. Slaveholders feared that these refugees from a country where a slave revolt was successful would lead their own slaves to revolt. Once Jefferson became president he cut off aid to the rebels, imposed a trade embargo and did not recognize Haiti as independent. It hurt France financially; ended Napoleon's dream of an American empire which led to him selling the Louisiana land to the Americans.
Paxton Boys (1763)
Scots-Irish farmers who were upset by disputes over western land; In western pennsylvania leads to the paxton boys killing 20 peaceful indians. When the quaker government tried to try and punish them, mobs marched on philadelphia and Ben Franklin has to stop it. Feeling of racial hatred/resentment arise; first conflict of western expansion
Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) & Treaty of Greenville
Final clash between Native Americans and the United States. Lead by General Anthony Wayne, 4,000 American soldiers fought against tribes such as the Shawnees, Potawatomis, and Ojibwas, all lead by the chief, Little Turtle. The Americans defeated the Indians, leading to the Treaty of Greenville a year later. It ceded new territory to the United States in exchange for formal acknowledgement of Indian possession over certain lands. Although the treaty promised to honor Native American claims to land, it offered a false sense of protection from invasion by Americans moving westward. In addition, the new territory added to the United States made settlement a much easier feat as Americans did not have to defend themselves from attacks by the Natives. This decline in conflict between the Native Americans and the United States proved that the Constitution was better equipped to handle such problems
Recommended textbook explanations
The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century (California Edition)
Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch
United States History
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell
The American Vision: Modern Times California Edition
Sets found in the same folder
APUSH period 4 flashcards vocab
APUSH Unit 5
APUSH unit 6 vocab cards
APUSH Unit 7 IDs
Sets with similar terms
Period 3 APUSH
APUSH UNIT 2 VOCABULARY
APUSH Unit 3 Review
Other sets by this creator
Module 2 -- Borrowing
ALL OF APUSH!!!!!!<Bum bum Bum bum baaaa>
UNIT 7: THE GREAT DEPRESION (Period 7: 1890-1945)
Other Quizlet sets
History 157 Mid-Term
Psychology Prologue Questions
Chemistry ASCP MLT EXAM
Psych 240 Lecture 8