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History 103 Final Exam Terms
Terms in this set (85)
Mills in Lowell, MA that were known for employing women, providing strct supervision, and on-site dormitories. A complex of textile mills built by the Boston Company in 1823. Women were replaced by immigrant laborers in 1840 for economic reasons.
A canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. Completed in 1825, it cut transport costs by about 90%. The canal resulted in population surge in western New York and also regions further west.
Panic of 1837
A period of great economic depression when the citizens lost their confidence in the banks and began pulling their money out. The banks ran out of money to give people and many lost their entire savings. America blamed President Andrew Jackson for the failed system.
Julianne Jane Tillman (1830-1845)
African Methodist Episcopal church records acknowledge that the first bishop, Richard Allen, recognized that some women possessed evangelical and teaching gifts. Although women were not allowed to become church leaders in the early years, they were permitted to teach and preach. Some became itinerant evangelists, like Tillman.
Founded by John Humphrey Noyes, community in Oneida, NY based on the ideas that people should stop sinning, Christians must achieve a state with no sin, and sexual pleasure was a gift from God. The community thrived by producing and selling silverware but was torn by debates on marriage laws in 1875.
Form of government where the government is ruled directly by the people. Based on the idea that everyone votes on everything, however, it proved inefficient. Was first used in America around 1900.
Property law in the 1700's that states that women were legally property of fathers until they were 21 or married, then she became the property of her husband. Despite Jefferson's ideals of natural equality, this property law illusrated that the states still lacked political equality for non-property holders. Only 10% of the nation could legally vote.
Feme covert was a legal status of women that was granted by coverture. The term translates form French to English as 'married woman'. This demonstrated that the only role women had was as a wife and belonged to the husband.
Martin v. Massachusetts (1805)
Legal case that illustrates the point of coverture and how a woman's legal identity is subsumed to her husband in which a widow, Anna Martin, tried to reobtain land that was under her husband's land. The land was claimed by the government after the family fled as loyalists. She can't dispute the claim because she is a woman so her son, James Martin, comes back to serve for her. The grounds for the suit is that under coverture, Anna Martin had no choice but to follow her husband when he wanted to flee.
Despite the separation, political leaders still saw the importance of church and laws were made to enforce religion, virtue and knowledge were promoted.
Judith Sargent Murray, "On the Equality of the Sexes"
Judith Sargent Murray published "On the Equality of the Sexes" in the spring 1790 edition of Massachusetts Magazine. Stemming from a draft that she had been tinkering with since 1779, Sargent Murray's essay covers many of the same themes and arguements as Wollstonecraft's text, although this earlier work has sadly been neglected in conversations concerning 18th century thoughts on women's rights.
Treaty of Fort Pitt (1778)
A defensive alliance between the Delawares and US Congress, and the first written Indian treaty concluded by the new United States. Delawares were reluctant to take up arms or support yhe British in the revolution, so Chief White Eyes lead his people in making the treaty in 1778. The alliance was short lived due to the murder of White Eyes. The Delawares join the British and America strikes back by attacking Delawares and bludgeoning 96 people to death.
Sullivan Campaign (1779)
Sullivan Expedition in 1779, a scorched earth campaign against the Iriquois towns that had taken up arms against the American revolutionaries. As a member of Congress, Sullivan worked closely with the US Ambassador the Chevalier de la Luzerne.
The freedom of slavery. These free slaves usually had very few skilled jobs available to them because they mainly couldn't work skilled jobs. They were typically found in factories and living in poverty. However, there was an elite group in the New Orleans region that was in the upper social class.
A conspiracy between competitors in business to set prices for their goods or services at a specific price point. Price fixing violates state and federal laws against business collusion. One powerful company will have control of the stocks of many smaller companies in the same line of business, creating a monopoly. The monopoly allows price-fixing and benefits all companies involved.
Disestablishment of Churches
(18th century) to separate an official state church from its connection with the government. Following the Revolution, all states disestablished the Anglican Church, though some New England states maintained established Congregational Churches well into the 19th century.
A legislature with only one legislative chamber, as opposed to a bicameral (two-chamber) legislature, such as the US Congress. Today, Nebraska is the only state in the Union with a unicameral legislature.
Created by John Adams to counter the appeal of the Pennsylvania Constitution. It has a two house legislature. His system dispersed authority by assigning the different functions of government to separate institutions: lawmaking, administering, and judging.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Legislative makes laws, executive applies and enforces the laws, and judiciary interprets the law. This created a balance and the different branches keep each other in check. Added to the Constitution in 1787.
A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress. Established in 1804.
An official count of population. In the US, the federal census occurs every ten years. The first census in the US took place in 1790.
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the US House of Reps. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
An act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States, passed July 13, 1787.The primary effect of the ordinance wsa the creation of the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
Fugitive Slave Cause
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution. States that slaves who escaped must be returned to tehir owners. The clause was abolished in 1864 by the Thirteenth Amendment.
Notes on the State of Virginia (1788)
Written by Thomas Jefferson. Expressed his beliefs in the separation of church and state, constitutional government, checks and balances, and individual liberty. Wrote about slavery, the problems of miscegenation, and his belief that whites and blacks could not live together in a free society.
Report on Manufactures (1791)
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry. Though Congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced industrial policies.
Alien, Naturalization, and Sedition Acts (1798)
Contains 4 parts
1. Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years.
2. Alien Act - gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country
3. Alien Enemies Act - permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to (no arrests made under Alien Act or Alien Enemies Act)
4. The Sedition Act - key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration.
Kentucky (1798) and Virginia (1799) Resolves
Were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. These also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Jefferson's "Revolution of 1800"
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
The US, under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon. The US paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The US gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size. Controversial purchase (many Americans thought the purchase was a bad idea).
Large v. Small Plantation
Large plantations had communities, strong family ties, adoption of children/parents/etc., considered family even if not through blood, marriages lasted lifetimes (if not separated by owners or death).
Small plantations had less workers, workign with owners, less sense of community for slaves.
Gang v. Task System
Task system (most common in rice culture) - slaves were assigned a particular task in the morning, and after completing the job, they were free for the rest of the day.
Gang System (more common) - slaves were divided into groups, compelled to work for as many hours as the overseer considered a reasonable work day.
Second Middle Passage
About 1 million slaves migrated involuntarily to the lower south between 1820-1860, which is similar to the Great Migration of slaves on the Middle Passage to the colonies years before, "sold down the river," describing the migration of hundreds of thousands of slaves from the upper south to the lower south (to make cotton). Usually sold to planters who were already there.
Believed in a strong national government, centralized authority, complex commercial economy, repected standing in foreign affairs; held power for the first 12 years. George Washington, JOhn Adams, and Alexander Hamilton were federalists. Federalist Party was the first American political party (1790s-1816). Controlled federal government until 1801.
Group of farmers against ratification. Opponents of the Constitution (saw it as a limitation on individual and states' rights). Views resulted in the Bill of Rights. Led by Patrick Henry. Worried the position of president would evolve into a monarchy.
Formed in 1792 by Thomas Jefferson and others who believed in an agrarian-based, decentralized, democratic government. The party was established to oppose the Federalists who had supported and pushed through the ratification of the US Constitution.
Subscribed to Jefferson ideas. Republican society built upon an agrarian (farming culture) empire and farmers (1790s to 1820s)
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They did not want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
French monarch; the French Revolution was a response to his refusal to grant reforms; the liberty-loving American people cheered the events in France, viewing them as a second chapter of their own Revolution (1754-1793)
Reign of Terror
Ten-month period of brutal repression when some 40,000 individuals were executed as enemies of the French Revolution. While many Jeffersonians maintained their faith in the French Republic, Federalists withdres their already lukewarm support once the Reign of Terror commenced. (1793-1794)
The Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti. This is regarded as themost successful slave uprising and was a defining moment for black slaves.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Adopted in 1789, this document written by the French Revolutionaries gave rights to many. The document was based off of Enlightenment principles, therefore excluding those such as women. It allowed the French to make a complete severance away from the prior government of absolute monarchism.
Was an important leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
The first armed rebellion was organized by this man and 50 other slaves living near Richmond, VA (1800). Hundreds of slaves heard about the plan, and Prosser and 25 of his followers were executed and their owners received compensation. Black resistance to enslavement played an important role in fashioning a compromise to the sectional controversy of 1850.
Battle of New Orleans, 1815
A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army's battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured and only 8 American soldiers were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
A new product for farmers that overshadowed all others, this was a hardier, coarser strain that could grow successfully in a variety of climates and soils. It was harder to process than the long-staple cottonvariety because its seeds were more difficult to remove from the fiber, but the invention of the cotton gin solved this problem.
Treaty of Fort Jackson
August 1814, Jackson forces Red Stick Creek to sign treaty which gave up 23 million acres in Georgia and Alabama, a lot more white settlement in area even thought he treaty was disputed as other Creeks claimed ownership
A white Pennsylvanian named Stephen Foster made a valuable conrtibution to American folk music by capturing the plaintive spirit of true slaves with songs like "Old Folks at Home" and "Oh! Susanna!" Published in 1848.
1813-1861, Illionois senator who created the Nebraska-Kansas Act, ran for president against Lincoln, wanted to expand westward and give Chicago the upperhand of having the railroad significance. He destroyed the Compromise of 1850 and The Missouri Compromise of 1820, indirectly created the Republican Party with the Nebraska-Kansas Act. Further sectionalized the north and south territories.
Declarations and Orders of Secession
December 20, 1860; Special state convention voted unanimously to "dissolve the union of subsisting between SC and the other states" (SECEDE). Fire eaters throughout the south called on other states to do the same and organized mobs to attack Union supporters.
US commissioners could issue arrest warrants for slaves upon word of the slaveholder- the commissioner would be paid for each warrant
Cherokee chief (1828-1866) who went to court in Georgia to protect the Cherokees' right to own their own land when the government gave the land to new settlers.
This man of the eastern Sioux in Minnesota led a rebellion (against reservations) and killed more than 700 whites before being subdued by a force of regulars and militiamen. 38 Indians were hanged and the tribe was exiled to the Dakotas.
Armed conflict between the US and several bands of the eastern Sioux. It ended with a mass execution of 38 Dakota men in 1862 in Mankato, Minnesota. AKA: Dakota War of 1862 or Santee Uprising.
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
Created by David Wilmot, who tried to pass a controversial amendment that banned slavery in all the new land bought from Mexico. It created tension between the north and south, and symbolized the issue of slavery in the territories.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)
This treaty was negotiated by the chief clerk of the State Department, Nicholas P. Trist, after a few failed attempts at an armistice. He signed the treaty in 1848. The treaty was very successful, giving America claim to Texas, and all of the land west of Texas stretching up to Oregon, including California. The US paid $15 million for the land, increased US by 1/3.
He wrote this old account called "Twelve Years a Slave" (1853)which was a harrowing tale of being kidnapped in Washington. He was a slave for 12 years before he was able to get northern friends to bring the legal proof to free him. As a result of stories like his and the very effective publicity generated by abolitionist nine northern state passed liberty laws, saying that they will operate with the federal recapture efforts.
New England Emigrants' Aid Society
Free soil(antislavery) New Englanders were recruited to Kansas by this. Founded by abolitionist Eli Thayer in 1854. Many people starting with Free Soilers moved into the town of Lawrence, which eventually turned into a fully functioning Town and Community. Similar to temperance and abolitionism.
A person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants, specifically, a native born American who wants to limit immigration (and outside influence). They hated minorites, immigrants and Catholics.
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857
A Supreme Court case in which a slave, Dred Scott, tried to sue for his freedom on the grounds that his master moved him to a free territory. The judge ruled against Scott in what is often considered one of the worst Supreme Court decisions in American history. Court ruled that since slaves are property of their masters, a slave is not automatically granted his freedom. Slaves are not citizens and therefore have no legal right to sure.
This extemist abolitionist movement was led by John Brown. After moving from Ohio to Kansas, he led a few fellow extremists in May 1856 and slaughtered 5 proslaveryites out of anger over recent attack in Lawrence.
Nat Turner's Revolt (1831)
Nat Turner was a visionary black preacher who led an uprising that slaughtered about 60 Virginians, mostly women and children. Turner believed he was receiving signs from God. His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in American, and led the state legislature to a policy that said no one could question slavery. This was another sign of uneasiness that eventually led to the Civil War.
Gag Rule (1836)
An act of Congress that was passed in 1836 in response to the overwhelming amount of petitions and letters that were being sent to Congress that demanded the abolishment of slavery. Southern Pro-Slavery congressmen and some Northern congressmen teamed together and had the resolution passed. This made it so when the House of Reps received any petitioni or letter that condemned slavery, it was to be put to the side. The resolution gradually gained widespread resentment and was repealed about 10 years later. Significant bc it proved the lengths pro-slavery people were willing to go to preotect it.
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (1840)
Organization founded and led by the Tappan brothers that opposed the radical ideas of William Lloyd Garrison, especially his attack on the churches and the Constitution. It followed a more moderate approach and supported the political activites of the Liberty Party.
In 1833, Crandall, a Quaker schoolmistress in Conneticut, announced that she would admit black girls into her school. The townspeople didn't like this and tried every way to prosecute her. She opened the school anyway and the townspeople vandalized it and she got arrested, after two trials she gave up and moved to Illinois.
Liberty Party (1840)
America's first antislavery political party. When the party ran a presidential candidate in the 1844 election, it split the Republican vote and inadvertently tipped the electoin in favor of Democrat James Polk.
Free Soil Party (1848)
Organized by anti-slavery men in the north, Democrats who were resentful at Polk's actions, and some conscience Whigs. The Free Soil Party was against slavery in new territories. They also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. This party foreshadowed the emergence of the Republican party.
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of a certain latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The Mexican residents of Texas who had fought with the Americans in the revolution, but after Texas won independence, many Americans feared that they were Mexican spies, and drove many out. Those that remained were given a political and economic subordinate status.
Americans living in the Texas region and settling there. 300 families fought for Texan independence in the revolution against the Mexican government.
A general that seized power of Mexico as a dictator, he increased the powers of the national government at the expense of the state governments, a measure that Texans from the United States assumed Santa Anna was aiming directly at them.
A man famous for using the term "Manifest Destiny" to convinve people tat Texas and Oregon Country should be joined to our country; he was influential at the time as a political writer for the Democratic Party.
Wade-Davis Bill (July 1864)
This required 50% of a state's voters to take the oath of allegiance and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation than Lincoln's as the price of readmission to the Union. Lincoln refused to sign the bill, instead he kept it in his political pocket bc he didn't want to piss off the Radical Republicans by rejecting it, nor did he want to further alienate the south.
May 29, 1865 Proclamation
Andrew Johnson issued his own Reconstruction proclamation
*disenfranchised certain leading Confederates (including those with taxable property worth more than $20,000) - Ex. Jefferson Davis would never have a spot in Congress
*Called for special state conventions, which were required to repeal the ordinances of secession (no state would ever be allowed to secede from the Union again), repudiate all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing 13th Amendment.
These laws were designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as the slave statutes had done in pre Civil War days. Mississippi was the first to pass such law in 1865 and other southern states followed suit. They aimed to ensure a stable and subservient labor force, sought to restore the pre emancipation system of race relations.
Created by Congress on March 3, 1865. It was intended to be a primitive welfare agency to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education both to freedmen and to white refugees. Achieving its greatest successes in educaton, they taught about 200,000 blacks how to read. But it failed in other ways, although it authorized former slaves to settle, little land actually landed in their hands. It expired in 1872.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Supported by Republicans, this act supposedly guaranteed equal accomodations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, but the law was born toothless and stayed that way for nearly a century. Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill but Congress voted in favor of it with a 2/3 majority so it became a law. Later, the Supreme Court pronounced much of the act unconstitutional.
US Sanitary Commission
Founded in 1861 with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies and equipped hospitals in an effort to help the Union Army. The commission helped professionalize nursing and gave many women the confidence and organizational skills to propel the women's movement in the postwar years.
A system of work for freedmen who were employed in the cotton industry. This system traded a freedmen's labor for the use of a house, land, and sometimes further accommodations. They would usually give half or more of their grown crop to their landlords. It forced the freedmen to become dependent on their previous owners; many stayed in this system until 1890.
New credit system where crops were used as a collateral for buying materials before yearly payment. Created huge amounts of debt that could not be paid off. Blacks who acquired land gradually lost it. Southern farmers became dependent on cash crops (COTTON). Agriculture never diversified, exhaustion of soil so decline in agricultural economy of the south.
Habeas Corpus Act
States that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Gave Lincoln the opportunity to jail his opposition without evidence. Ruled unconstitutional for Lincoln to do this by Ex parte Merryman.
Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments
Thirteenth (1864) - Freed all slaves and abolished slavery (except as punishment)
Fourteenth (1868) - Granted full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants. Also included the "Due Process Clause" which states that no state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Fifteenth (1870) - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage).
Economic Depression of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver). Result of capitalist economic expansion in which promoters had exceeded the markets ability to support them. This caused banks to give out too many loans that would not be paid back, and a worldwide economic panic. 5,000 American businesses went bankrupt. Debtors wanted greenbacks (easy to pay back) while creditors demanded hard money (worth more).
Sioux War of 1865-1867
In 1865, gold miners invaded Sioux territory and set off another Indian War. The war was fueled when the government planned to build the Bozeman Trail connecting mining towns in the middle of the Sioux hunting grounds in Montana. The Sioux chief, Red Cloud, led an army column under Captain William J. Fetterman into an ambush and wiped out the entire column. The federal government created a Peace Commission to end the Sioux War and all other Indian Wars.
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
An act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. Leftover land was sold for money to fund US government efforts to "civilize" Native Americans. Of 130 million acres held in Native American reservations before the Act, 90 million were sold to non-Native buyers.
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