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Mizzou Bio 1010 Stone Exam 5 Study Guide
Terms in this set (62)
What are anitibodies?
proteins made by the body that bind to specific antigens
What are antigens?
proteins on the surface of pathogens
What are B-Cells?
A type of Lymphocyte that recognizes pathogens and develop in the bone marrow
What are T-Cells?
They are made in the thymus and they are important after cells have been infected
What are macrophages
large white blood cells that engulf & digest pathogens, put parts of the pathogens on their surface to help your specific immunity, and send chemical signals to attract other parts of the immune system
Otherwise known as "killer T-Cells", they kill infected host cell, and they are especially good against viral infections
What are Neutrophils?
small, short-lived cells that respond to chemical signals to ingest pathogens
What are memory B-Cells?
live a long time to remember the pathogen
What are Helper T-Cells?
they activate other immune system cells
What are allergies?
The immune system fights off a harmless protein from the environment
What do regulatory T-Cells do?
turn off the immune system after infection
What are flu strains resistant to?
What does a fever do to the immune system?
increases white blood cell activity, decreases pathogen activity
What causes inflammation?
leaking blood vessels
What is an innate immunity?
non-specific first defense that we are born with
What are some barriers that humans have to block out invasive pathogens?
skin, mucus, wax, hair, cilia in airways, enzymes in saliva and tears, acids on skin and in stomache
What does the immune system do in someone with autoimmune disorder?
The immune system fights off the body's own proteins
What do vaccines do?
make harmless antigens that force the body to make antibodies against a pathogen
What is an acquired immunity
an immunity that is specific and developed after birth
What is a lymphocyte?
white blood cells that recognize pathogens
What do plasma B-cells do?
they mass produce specific, free antibodies that flood the system, inactivating pathogen or flagging it for macrophages
How do antibodies work?
When the antibodies bind to an antigen, they divide to make a plasma B-cell and Memory B-cell. Plasma B-cells mass produce specific, free antibodies that flood the system, inactivating pathogen or flagging it for macrophages. Memory B-cells live a long time to remember the pathogen
What part of the antibody binds to an antigen?
made by B cells in humans and attach to B cells floating freely in the body
3 main tasks antibodies perform
Recognize, destroy, and remember
What makes one antibody different from another?
function and location and (maybe) shape?
Do all antibodies recognize the same antigen?
No, there are 100 million of them and they all perform different tasks
What cells make antibodies?
B-cells. And these are made in the bone marrow
When a B Cell is attached to a pathogen and divides it makes two cells. What are the
functions of these cells?
Plasma B-cells: mass produce specific, free antibodies that flood the system, inactivating pathogen or flagging it for macrophages
Memory B-cells: live a long time to remember the pathogen
how does our body "remember" pathogens?
memory B-cells live for a long time and store the memory to defeat a pathogen that has once been gotten rid of
.What are the three types of T Cells? What is the function of each?
Cytotoxic (killer) T-cells: kill infected host cell, especially good against viral infections
Helper T-Cells: activate other immune system cells
Regulatory (or suppressor) T-cells: turn off the immune system after infection
What leads to inflammation?
Macrophages and Neutrophils
What are the differences between allergies and autoimmune disorders?
Allergies: the immune system fights off a harmless protein from the environment
Autoimmune disorder: the immune system fights off the body's own proteins
Why does evolution matter to us from a health perspective?
pathogens can evolve to be resistant to medicines we have, so we need to constantly be making new medicines
What diseases discussed in class have evolved resistance to treatments?
Tuberculosis, MRSA/VRSA, C-Diff, Flu, HIV, strep, salmonella, E.coli
What type of pathogen causes tuberculosis? What are the symptoms?
Slow growing bacterial infection, usually found in the lungs. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it.
- If it is latent, the person has the bacteria but is not sick
- If it is active, the person has symptoms of bloody cough, weight loss, fever. 50% death rate if not treated
What are the two types of TB infections a person can have?
Latent: has the bacteria but not sick
Active: bloody cough, weight loss, fever, 50% chance of death if not treated
When is a person contagious? How is TB spread?
Contagious until completely taken care of. Can be spread through the air
Why are health officials concerned with TB, a disease that has been treatable since
early 20th century? What is the death rate of TB if treatments don't work?
TB strains are constantly evolving and can evolve to be resistant to certain antibiotics. Death rate is 50% if treatments don't work
What are the differences between normal TB, MDR-TB, XDR-TB, and TDR-TB strains?
Normal TB: can be killed by antibiotics
MDR-TB: resistant to many antibiotics
XDR-TB: resistant to most antibiotics
TDR-TB: TOTALLY resistant to TB
Describe the evolving pathogens we discussed: C-Diff,
MRSA/VRSA, and flu (influenza)
MRSA/VRSA: Staph skin infection resistant to most antibiotics
C-Diff: gastric bacterial infection
Flu: strains resistant to anti-virals
What type of pathogen is HIV? List its characteristics.
the pathogen that causes HIV is a retrovirus, which means it contains RNA.
- has reverse transcriptase - converts its RNA to DNA
- Has 9 genes that make 14 proteins - a protease enzyme cuts gene products to make multiple proteins
- High mutation rate: 1 strain infects and mutates into 30+ strains
- Infects helper T-cells
- treated using a cocktail (ART therapy) that includes: inhibitors of RT, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors
- HIV can evolve resistant to ART
How does HIV target the Helper T Cells (think CD4 and GP120)?
GP120 on virus surface binds to CD4 on HTC
In the early 1980s scientists announced they would have a vaccine and/or treatment for
HIV within 5 years. Here we are and we still don't have either. Why is HIV infection so
hard to treat or prevent (3 reasons)?
It has a high mutation rate
infects helper T-cells
can evolve resistant to ART
When resistance to an antibiotic occurs, what changes: you, the drug, or the
What is a species? How can one determine if two organisms are the same species?
species: a group of similar organisms
- can interbreed
- offspring can breed
what makes a population?
a group of organisms of the same species that DO interbreed
define evolution and speciation. What is the difference between the two terms?
Evolution: a change in the frequency of a certain allele in a population over generations
Speciation: a population evolves and can no longer breed with other populations. a new species forms
How is skin color in humans an example of natural selection?
it is a part of sexual selection: individuals select a mate based on inherited characteristics
What are the key concepts of natural selection?
- survival to reproduce
What role do alleles play in natural selection?
Gene flow and genetic drift
gene flow: movement of alleles from one population to another
Genetic drift: chance change in allele frequencies in a population
What does "fitness" relate to? Be able to recognize the "most fit" individual based on
some background information!
fitness refers to the one with the most surviving offspring
What are the 3 "modes of natural selection"? Describe each.
- Stabilizing selection: the "average" phenotype is beneficial. example: baby birth weight
- Directional selection: one extreme of a trait is beneficial
- disruptive selection: both extremes of a trait are beneficial
Why is misusing antibiotics, antibacterial products, and anti-viral drugs potentially
Once the symptoms go away, one might be tempted to stop taking them, but the more resistant ones could still be there and reproduce to make more of the highly resistant ones
We discussed 6 major ways evolution can happen (7 if you break up the two types off
Genetic drift discussed). What were they?
- Natural selection
- gene flow
- genetic drift (bottleneck and founder effects)
- artificial selection
- sexual selection
When does "gene flow" occur? Does it increase diversity or decrease diversity in the
it occurs when alleles from one population of a species moves to another population of the same species
it increases diversity
What is genetic drift? What are two ways it can occur? Does genetic drift increase
diversity or decrease it?
genetic drift occurs when an allele in a population happens to change frequencies
it decreases diversity
What is the Bottleneck Effect and how is it an example of evolution?
Bottleneck Effect: population is reduced to small numbers and some alleles are lost.
It relates to evolution because it decreases diversity
What is the Founder Effect and how is it an example of evolution?
part of population migrates to a new place to make a NEW population
What is the difference between artificial selection, sexual selection, and natural
Artificial selection: done by humans
Natural selection: done by environment
Sexual selection: done within the species
What are five tools that we use to study evolution/speciation? Be able to identify them
if given an example and describe how they are used.
1. Fossil records
- preserved remains of living things
- simple fossils are found under more complex (later) fossils
2. radiometric dating
- determines age of objects
- uses the constant decay of radioactive atoms (such as carbon) into stable atoms
3. comparative morphology
- morphology = shape of an organism
- compares the shape of different species to find similarities, called homologous structures
- also compares developmental stages
4. comparative sequence analysis
- DNA sequences mutate overtime
- the more similar the DNA sequence between 2 species, the closer they are evolutionarily
5. We witness it, but rarely. Typically speciation takes too long, but artificial and natural selection can speed it up
What are vestigial structures?
a part of a living thing that no longer has a purpose
1. What is a phylogenetic tree? What is a node? A clade? Be able to compare how
related a species is to another by looking at an example phylogenetic tree!
node: the nodes on the tree represent the common ancestors of those descendants.
clade: a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor
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