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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (23)
Types and functions of an introduction to a speech
Function of intro:
1. Gain Attention
2. Reveal the Topic
3. Give a Reason to Listen
4. Establish Credibility
5. Preview Main Points
Types of intro:
1. Startling Statements
2. Rhetorical Questions
various patterns for organizing the body of a speech
types and functions of a conclusion to a speech
Types of conclusion:
1. Summarize the main points that were presented
2. Refer back to the introduction and use it in conclusion (packaging)
3. Issue a Personal Appeal
4. Call for Specific Action
Functions of conclusion:
1. Summarize Main Points
2. Reiterate Central Idea
3. Close With the Proper Mood
The three types of proof and what each is
-Ethos - Speaker Character or Credibility
-Pathos - Emotional Proof
-Logos - Logical Proof
Types of strong logical reasoning
-Reasoning from sign - one thing is present so another thing must be also.
-Reasoning from cause - an event causes a subsequent even to happen.
-Reasoning from correlation - two things vary in direct proportion to each other.
-Reasoning from precedent - something always been done a certain way should continue to be done that way unless a good reason to change is given.
-Reasoning from comparison - compare two things showing their similarities and/or differences
-Reasoning from definition - define something and then reason on the basis of that definition.
types of fallacious reasoning
-Theatrics - Using a dramatic or glib speech delivery to cover-up a lack of evidence.
-Appealing to Popularity (Bandwagoning)-Saying that something is good or right because a majority of people believe it to be so.
-Ad hominem - Making a personal attack on one's opponent rather than his/her argument
-Hasty Generalization - Basing a conclusion on too few examples
-Loaded Language - Using emotionally charged words to cover a lack of evidence
-Arguing in a Circle - Restating the same thing over so it appears as though you are giving evidence.
The types of evidence one can use to support their arguments in a persuasive speech
-Surveys/Public Opinion Polls
Types of emotions that speakers can appeal to in order to persuade others
-Love of family,
-Youth (Look/feel young),
-Puritan Hard Work Ethic,
Types of visual aids speakers can use and guidelines for the effective use of each
-Types: 1. Slides 2. Audio/CD's 3. Videos/DVD's 4. Physical Objects 5. Models 6. Posters 7. Charts 8. Photos 9. Drawings 10. Chalkboard/Marker Board 11. Transparencies 12. Handouts 13. Diagrams 14. Maps 15. Graphs 16. Computer-generated visual aids (i.e. Powerpoint)
1. Prepare them in a professional manner.
2. Make them so that they can easily be seen by everyone in the audience.
3. Don't let your visual aid be a distraction.
4. Incorporate your visual aid into your presentation.
5. Don't you distract from your visual aid.
6. Have electronic visual aids "cued-up" and ready to be used.
7. Keep your visual aids simple
Ways to alleviate or reduce communication apprehension about giving a speech
1. Be prepared.
2. Know that "communication apprehension" or "stage fright" is normal and natural in public speaking.
3. Do breathing and/or relaxation exercises before hand.
4. Pause and take a few deep breaths before speaking.
5. Practice and know especially well the beginning of the speech.
6. Realize that the audience (and the instructor) has reasonable expectations of you.
7. Speak to the friendly/interested faces in the beginning of your presentation.
8. Use the speaking occasion as a chance to say something you really want to say.
9. Use movement to help you relax
Five communication cues that differ from culture to culture
- Proxemics (space)
- Eye Contact, Facial Expression and Head Nods/Shakes
The four types of conflict
-pseudo conflict - exists only in the mind of one or more persons.
-content conflict- exists over the accuracy of information or the truthfulness
-value conflict - stems from the different beliefs/values that persons have.
-ego conflict - exists because a persons ego gets in the way and they look at it as a win/lose situation that they must "win".
five communication strategies for managing conflict
- avoidance - physically or mentally absenting oneself from the conflict
-accomodation - the "giving in" of one of the parties to avoid conflict in a
- competition - using force or the threat of force to get one's way in a conflict
-compromise - the giving in on some points so that one can "win-out" or get
their way on others.
- collaboration - rationally discussing how the problem can be solved in the
Best interests of all of the parties involved.
Five types of kinesics
five types of paralanguage
The ten stages which Knapp and Vangelisti state that all relationships pass through and ONE thing that happens in each
1) Pre-Interaction Awareness: The stage where persons observe each other and ask others for information about the other but still have not verbally interacted
2) Initiation: The stage where the persons verbally interact for the first time.
3) Exploration: Topics become more personal but are still basically general/superficial
4) Intensification: Topics of conversation become much more personalized
5) Intimacy: Much time is spent together
6) Stagnation: Arguing/fighting becomes more prevalent
7) De-intensification: Conversations are general and difficult to hold with each other
8) Individualization: Plans are made without (and without taking account of) the other
9) Separation: decision is made by one or both parties to no longer interact in the future
10) Post-interaction Awareness: One tries to determine what happened with the relationship (or where it "went wrong".)
12. Four questions a speaker should ask them when picking a topic for a speech
-Is the topic right for you?
-Is the topic right for the audience?
-Is the topic right for the available time?
-Is the topic right for the occasion?
13. Reasons persons are not good listeners
- Physiological reasons
-ease with which listening is faked
-feeling the speaker has all of the responsibility for the communication
-preconceived notions that a speaker or topic is boring
ways to improve one's listening ability
- Be physically and mentally prepared to listen
-block out all distractions (both internal & external)
-listen with an open mind
- be an active listener
-meet the speaker half way
-get something positive out of every communication encounter
14. The duties of the moderator
-Give background info On the problem;
-Bring up each possible solution;
-Encourage equal participation among the group's members;
-Keep the group on track;
-Summarize after discussing each solution and give an overall summary at the end.
duties of a panelist
-Be present and on time;
-Stay on the topic the group is discussing;
-Disagree in a polite and tactful manner;
-Listen carefully to the other group members;
-Use good public speaking skills.
15. The five misconceptions of effective language usage and what each is
-Superiority - Misconception that one person's or group's use of language is better than another person's or group's.
- Morality - Misconception that words are nice or not nice, dirty or not dirty or offensive or not offensive.
-Singularity - Misconception that a word has only one meaning.
-Permanency - Misconception that the meaning of a word always remains the same.
-Complexity - Misconception that large polysyllabic words are best to use.
16. The four theories that explain why certain persons emerge as leaders in groups and which one is the most widely adhered to
-Trait Theory - a persons physical and/or personality traits cause him/her to emerge as the leader.
-Situation Theory - a person who is right for that particular situation will emerge as the leader.
-Style Theory - a person who has the right leadership style will emerge as the leader.
- Functional Theory - a person who performs the duties that a leader normally performs will begin to be looked at by the others in the group as the leader and will eventually emerge as the leader.
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