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HDFS 2013 Final
Terms in this set (150)
_____________ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
Jack and Bentley are 4-year olds. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, these activities will:
Help the boys develop their gross motor skills
Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?
Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12
The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
Motor vehicle accidents
The second Piagetian stage of development is the preoperational stage that lasts from approximately _________ years of age
2 to 7
The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's perspective is known as ______.
A young child might be heard saying, "That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down." This child's belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as _______.
Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne's cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing lack of:
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky's term for:
The range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from adults
When 4- and 5- year old children scramble over gyms and race their friends, they demonstrate their:
Gross motor skills
Self-conscious emotions do not appear to develop until self-awareness appears at approximately __________.
15 to 18 months
When Declan is upset, his mother facilitates open discussion about why he is upset and helps him figure out how to deal with negative emotions. Therefore, Declan's mother takes an _______ approach to parenting.
Jerome, 6, and Hani, 10, get up early on Saturday morning and decide to make "breakfast in bed" for their mother. While reaching for the tray in the back of the hall cabinet, they accidentally break one of their mother's favorite porcelain dolls. Jerome knows that he's going to get into "big trouble," but Hani tells him not to worry because Mom would understand that it was an accident. In what stage would Piaget categorize the moral reasoning of Jerome and Hani?
Jerome - heteronomous morality; Hani - autonomous morality
___________ thinking characterizes the kind of thinking that is required on conventional tests of intelligence:
In the context of the size of same-sex groups of children, from about 5 years of age onward:
Boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls
Sierra, age three, has to eat everything on her plate at dinner. When she does not, her father punishes her by sending her to bed without dinner. Sierra also has strict schedules for playing, watching television, and sleeping, and any disobedience leads to spanking and punishment with little to no explanation. Sierra's father is most likely a(n):
Research has indicated all of the following are linked with corporal punishment (spanking) except:
Higher levels of moral internalization
Dylan's teachers frequently complain that he disrupts his class by fidgeting and moving about all the time. He does not pay attention to what is being taught in class and behaves impulsively. Considering the presence of the tell-tale characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, Dylan's pediatrician diagnosed him with _______.
A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball form. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, that is, both have the same amount of clay, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory?
A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:
The task is too difficult for the child to accomplish on his own
Michael, aged four, loves playing with toy cars and airplanes, and his idea of play involves wrestling and pushing his friends. Melanie, also aged four, loves playing with her dolls and doll house, and her idea of play is to have a tea party with her dolls and friends. Both are exhibiting:
Although Casey scores only about average on standardized intelligence tests, he has street smarts, excellent social skills, and good common sense. According to Sternberg, he has ________ intelligence.
The worldwide increase in intelligence scores that has occurred over a short period of time is called the:
In terms of self-understanding, children in late childhood are more likely than children in early childhood to:
Compare themselves with others
Tapi believes that all human beings have certain inalienable rights that need to be protected. She believes that the current law in her country which prohibits interracial marriage is unfair and should be changed. According to Kohlberg, which of the following describes Tapi's level of moral reasoning?
Students with _______ for learning may avoid many learning tasks, especially those that are challenging.
Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral development by:
Presenting children with a series of stories in which characters face moral dilemmas
Jayden is rarely nominated as a best friend, but his peers don't dislike him. He would be classified as a ______ child.
According to social information processing theory, aggressive boys are more likely to perceive another child's actions as hostile when:
When does bullying behavior tend to peak?
Individuals with a(n) ______ mindset believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort.
Research suggests that __________ in the home is related to increased sleep disruptions, and vice versa.
Awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others is __________.
Theory of mind
The "word gap" can best be described as:
The difference in vocabulary size between economically advantaged and economically disadvantaged children
Which of the following is true of gender identity development in early childhood?
Fathers take more interest in gender-appropriateness for boys than girls
All of the following behaviors are considered "typical" of young children when it comes to gender identity development, except:
Which of the following fits best with Carol Dweck's entity theory of intelligence?
If you're smart, you don't have to work hard
Research examining ethnic differences in outcomes associated with spanking indicates:
In white families, externalizing behaviors and physical punishment tend to function cyclically
Myra made the highest grade in her class on her math test, and her teacher decided to talk with her afterwards about her grade. If her teacher used process praise, which of the following would she say to Myra?
You must have studied really hard for this test.
Shelia is taking her first graduate level engineering course. On the first day, her professor administers a "pre-test" to assess where each student is in regards to their advanced mathematical skills. Which of the following is most likely to be true?
Sixty-seven percent (67%) of individuals' IQ scores will fall between the scores of:
85 and 115
Which parenting style is classified as being high on sensitivity and warmth, but low on control and expectations?
Which of the following refers to teachers' adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student?
When it comes to bullying in schools, _______ are those that watch the episode take place, while _________ are those that encourage the bullying perhaps by cheering or filming with their cell phone.
When considering possible ways to solve problems with peers (response accessing), aggressive children tend to:
Come up with lower quality responses
In Mrs. Foghorn's 6th grade English class, she emphasizes collaboration and often assigns group work and class activities. She believes that her students learn best by creating their own knowledge with guidance from the teacher, and rarely relies on memorization or exams. Mrs. Foghorn likely takes a (n) __________ approach to student learning.
Why do more researchers think that birth order influences on child development have been emphasized too strongly?
Bernice was raised by two lesbian mothers, whereas Jessica was raised by a heterosexual couple. According to research, it is most likely that:
Bernice and Jessica are the same with regard to popularity and mental health.
Piaget and Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because:
Alberta is a school teacher who introduces children to reading by teaching them a rhyme that goes "A for apple, A says ah, B for ball, B says buh," and so on. This exemplifies the _____ approach to reading instruction.
Which theorist proposed the "storm-and-stress" view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings?
G. Stanley Hall
The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs approximately ____ for girls than for boys
Two years earlier
In the United States, the average age of menarche has _____ since the mid-nineteenth century.
Adolescents are most likely to conform to peers/experience peer pressure in which of the following grades?
Criminal acts, whether committed by a juvenile or an adult, are known as:
The top-dog phenomenon refers to:
Lowered status experienced by students when they move from elementary to junior high school
Which of the following statements regarding parents as managers is not true?
Fathers are more likely than mothers to have a managerial role in parenting
The ability to relinquish childlike dependence on parents is called:
Lisa, age 15, finds that she cannot control her emotions when she becomes angry. She lashes out at those around her in an inappropriate way. In connecting this with research on brain development, it may be that Lisa's _____ is not able to handle the emotional intensity of her _____.
prefrontal cortex; amygdala
If couples live together before they marry, research finds:
Lower rates of marital satisfaction
Which of the following is true concerning gay and lesbian adults?
Which of Susan's Harter's eight domains of self-image was most strongly associated with adolescent's self-esteem?
Sarah keeps thinking about the dumb question she asked in Biology class this morning. She feels so stupid and thinks that her classmates are probably still talking about what an idiot she is. She bets her teacher is laughing about it right now! This is an example of:
All of the following have been linked to lower rates of teen pregnancy, except:
Abstinence-only sex education
Which of the following is NOT one of the five distinctive features of emerging adulthood, as theorized by Jeffrey Arnett?
What is the leading cause of death for adolescents and emerging adults?
Unintentional injury or accidents
With reference to cross-cultural comparisons, which of the following statements about adolescent pregnancy in the U.S. is true?
In 2012, births to adolescent girls fell to a record low
Daughters of teenage mothers are:
At increased risk for teenage childbearing
A national study of U.S. adolescents revealed that physical activity:
Increased until 13 years of age but then declined through 18 years of age
What is the term Erikson uses to describe a period in which society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and free to try out different identities?
Myra's parents have always told her that she will be an engineer like her grandfather. Myra never even considered any other career and she is now enrolled in a pre-engineering program at a community college. James Marcia would classify Myra in which identity status?
Which of the following factors is NOT one of the Big Five factors of personality?
Which of the following statements is true about the role of temperament among children and adults?
Individuals who had an inhibited temperament in childhood are more likely than other adults to delay entering a stable job track.
_____ individuals are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in a relationship tend to distance themselves from their partner.
Which of the following best exemplifies the psychological concept of consensual validation?
Being comfortable with someone who values the same things that you do.
The matching hypothesis says that we choose partners:
Who are close to our level of physical attractiveness
Which of the following is true about gender differences in adult friendships?
Adult male friendships are more competitive than those of women
____ love has strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and it often predominates in the early part of a love relationship
Which of the following statements about cohabitation arrangements in the U.S. is true?
Length of cohabitation has been increasing since 1995
Lesbian couples especially place a high priority on:
Equality in their relationship
After Janine's divorce, she went back to college, renewed old acquaintances, and took up ballroom dancing. After completing college, she got the job she'd always wanted and entered into a long-term relationship. Janine chose the pathway of:
The initial stage of development of romantic relationships in adolescence is characterized by entry into romantic attractions and affiliations at about ___ years of age.
11 to 13
Most of us reach our peak physical performance:
Before the age of 30, often between the ages of 19 and 26
Irene, age 16, is a first-generation immigrant whose parents came to the United States from Ukraine when she was just a baby. Irene enjoys many of the same things that her American friends do, but respects her culture's traditions and speaks to her parents in their native language. Irene seems to have formed a ____ identity.
Stella has involved, responsive parents who support her in her choices as long as she adheres to certain basic rules that they have set for her, like keeping up her grades and coming home in time for dinner with her family on weeknights. Thus, Stella's relationship with her parents is characterized by a high level of trust, acceptance, and quality. Research indicates that Stella would:
Be likely to share information about her whereabouts, friends, and activities
Reggie, 16, gets into lots of arguments with his parents. Going by what is generally observed about parent-adolescent conflict, it is likely that most of the arguments center around:
Everyday events of family life
Which of the following statements is true about the various markers of adulthood?
Identify the concept which reflects ingrained cultural beliefs that engaging in hard work for long hours through adulthood will produce a path to status, security and happiness.
The career mystique
The four identity statuses described by James Marcia depend on the level of _____ and ______ carried out by an individual.
All of the following are positive family influences on adolescent identity development except:
Authoritarian parenting style
Parental supervision of adolescents' choice of social settings, activities, and friends is:
All of the following are aspects of Collins' five feature framework for researching close relationships, especially useful for dispelling myths about adolescent romantic relationships, except:
Which of the following is true regarding life-course-persistent offenders?
Criminal activity typically beings before age 15 and continues into adulthood
George wants to ensure that his sons become competent decision makers. Which of the following is a strategy you would suggest for improving their decision making?
Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving.
_____ are small groups that range from 2 to about 12 individuals and average about 5 or 6 individuals.
Which of the following statements about sexual orientation is considered true today?
Sexual orientation is a continuum from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same-sex relations.
Which of the following is a positive feature of the transition from high school to college?
Opportunities to explore different lifestyles and values
In the Berkeley Longitudinal Study some years ago, early-maturing boys perceived themselves _____ than did their late-maturing counterparts. When the late-maturing boys were in their thirties, however, they had developed a _____ than the early-maturing boys had.
more positively; stronger sense of identity
The age-crime curve:
Shows that criminal activity peaks in the teenage years and then declines through the early 20s
The _____, where fibers connect the brain's left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this improves adolescents' ability to process information.
Which of the following is a consistent finding regarding age identity?
As adults become older their age identity is younger than their chronological age
The average adult in middle adulthood ____ height and ____ weight.
The term _____ is given to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength.
During middle age, the ability to hear ____ sounds declines first.
What is the most common change in sleep patterns of adults during middle age?
There is a decrease in the deepest type of sleep
Which of the following statements about menopause is NOT true?
The age at which menopause occurs has increased dramatically in recent years
An adult in middle age will be most likely to do POORLY on which of the following tasks?
Hitting the brakes of a car when the light suddenly turns red
Which of the following statements about spirituality is TRUE?
Women have consistently shown a stronger interest in religion and spirituality than men have.
Erikson proposed that middle-aged adults face a significant issue which he termed:
Generativity vs stagnation
Which of the following is one of the top ten most frequent daily hassles for adults in middle age?
Concerns about weight
When men face stress, they are more likely to respond in a:
Lorenzo was born during the depression era in the U.S. Now he and others who were born at about the same time show greater cognitive decline than people born at later times. This illustrates that cohort effects are differences based on:
Mercy and her husband just had their last child move out of the house. He and his wife had lived vicariously through their children, letting their sports activities and various achievements dominate their lives. Now they may experience ____, which includes a decline in marital satisfaction after children leave the home.
Empty nest syndrome
Which of the following could undermine the influence of increases in longevity on the nature of grandparenting?
Trend in delaying childbearing
Almost half of the grandchildren who move in with grandparents are raised by:
A single grandmother
Middle adulthood is referred to as the sandwich generation because:
Middle-aged adults may have to care for their own adolescent children as well as their elderly parents
If born today in the United States, which of the following persons would have the highest life expectancy?
Susan who is a non-Latino white female
_____ is the most common chronic disorder in late adulthood.
In a classic study, Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer found that an important factor related to health, and even survival, in a nursing home is the:
Patient's feelings of control and self-determination
A common memory problem for older adults is ____, in which individuals cannot quite retrieve familiar information but have the feeling that they should be able to retrieve it.
Which of the following is an example of implicit memory?
Typing on a computer while talking to a friend
In his studies on wisdom, Paul Baltes has found all of the following EXCEPT:
Wisdom is correlated with cognitive factors such as intelligence
The concept of ____ emphasizes that changes in cognitive activity patterns might result in disuse and consequent atrophy of cognitive skills.
"use it or lose it"
Which of the following theories explains why older adults spend most of their time with familiar individuals and family?
Socioemotional selectivity theory
Which of the following is cited as one of the main reasons for the changing trajectories in knowledge-related and emotion-related goals of older adults compared with younger adults?
Perception of time
Studies on the Big Five factors of personality found that transition into late adulthood was characterized by increases in the aspects of impulse control, reliability, and conventionality. To which Big Five personality factor do these aspects belong?
Prejudice against others because of their age, especially prejudice against older adults, is known as ___.
Silas is a man who is in his late seventies. He has a condition characterized by hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance. This is otherwise known as:
Compared to men, women have a higher incidence of ____ disorders during middle adulthood.
Which of the following is a major difference between Levinson's and Vaillant's view on midlife?
Unlike Levinson, Vailliant maintains that only a minority of adults experience midlife as a crisis
The ____ life-events approach emphasizes the manner in which life events that influence an individual's development depends not only on these events, but also on mediating factors.
The timetable according to which individuals are expected to accomplish life's tasks, such as getting married, having children, or establishing themselves in a career is known as the ____.
Which of the following exemplifies the "evolutionary explanation" for differences in attitudes about older men versus older women, according to the Harwood (2007) article?
Attractiveness as a mate is valued above other factors in determining when and how women are shown on television.
According to the cross-sectional study on self-esteem conducted by Robins and others (2002), which age group has the highest self-esteem (think of the figure shared in the powerpoint)?
Which of the following is one of the BEST predictors of job performance in older adults?
Today, the average life expectancy in the United States is:
At present, the main causes of death in middle adulthood in the United States are:
Fluid intelligence is the ability to:
Vaillant's research showed that at age 50, the best predictors of who would be dead at 75 to 80 years of age were:
Alcohol abuse and smoking
The "young-old" are people who are between:
65 to 84 years of age
The _____ is one area of the brain that shrinks more than others with aging.
Gisela is suffering from a condition that involves thickening of the lenses of her eyes. This causes her vision to become cloudy or distorted. Identify the condition that Gisela is suffering from.
____ are the leading cause of injury deaths among adults who are 65 years and older.
The term ____ refers to the ability to focus on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are irrelevant.
In 1995, of the adults 65 and older in the workforce, those ____ rose substantially.
Engaging in full-time work
Erikson believed that people who experience isolation and stagnation in earlier adulthood are more likely to experience ____ in later adulthood.
Olivia believes that the more dynamic and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives. Thus, she believes in:
Which of the following statements about older workers is true?
Older workers experience more job satisfaction than younger workers.
Lauren's mother is concerned about Lauren's lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Lauren, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Lauren and her mother:
have different social clocks.
Middle-age partners are more likely to view their marriage as positive if they:
engage in mutual activities.
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